This chapter summarizes the preceding discussions. The end of the Civil War left Mississippi a defeated, broken, and traumatized state. The defeat came from both outward and inward forces. Outside factors included the Federal armies that, by the end of the war, were marching at will across the state. An inward loss of will to win, mostly emerging in response to those outside factors, was also growing among formerly pro-war white Mississippians. Adding to the decline in will among the people as a result of the Federal invasions was the upsurge in Unionism.
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