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Raised Up Down YonderGrowing Up Black in Rural Alabama$

Angela McMillan Howell

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9781617038815

Published to University Press of Mississippi: May 2014

DOI: 10.14325/mississippi/9781617038815.001.0001

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(p.239) Index

(p.239) Index

Source:
Raised Up Down Yonder
Publisher:
University Press of Mississippi
A. J. Cobb School, 60–61, 72
Aaliyah, 159, 165
ACT prep, 17–18, 132, 169
“acting white,” 206
African American adolescents, 4, 195
African American culture. See black culture
Aguilera, Christina, 5, 166
All Our Kin, 28, 44
Attala County, Alabama, 3, 75, 79, 186
Attala County Board of Education, 186
Bailey sisters, 102, 151
Banks, Lloyd, 5, 164, 171, 184
Barth, Fredrik, 13
behavior, 3, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, 23, 43, 125, 133, 142, 145–46, 153, 157, 172, 177, 196–97, 210;
adolescent, 156;
adults’, 24;
championship, 114;
community, 34;
discriminatory, 88;
disrespectful, 70;
erratic, 132;
“ghetto,” 216;
“good,” 216;
messy, 109, 115;
“poor,” 120;
rebellious, 214;
snapshot, 142;
social, 23, 202;
young people’s, 24, 128, 130, 157;
youth, 155, 157
Berger, Peter L., 68–69, 206
Between Sundays: Black Women and Everyday Struggles of Faith, 136
Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, 14–15, 130, 157, 221
black community. See community
black culture. See culture
black men, 33, 224
black schools. See schools
black students, 48, 54–55, 60–62, 71, 83, 87–88, 90–93, 185, 206, 209
Black Talk: Words and Phrases from the Hood to the Amen Corner, 98, 211
black women, 136–37, 141, 168, 170, 210, 215–16, 220–22, 224
black youth. See youth
blackness, 145, 175, 177–78, 217, 220
blues. See music
Bourdieu, Pierre, 12, 96
Bourgois, Phillipe, 96, 125
Bowles, Samuel, 67
boyfriends, 32, 101, 115, 135, 140, 192
Brighton, Saul, 112–13, 120, 213
capitalist culture. See culture
Carlyle High School, 16, 60
Carlyle school system. See school system
Carrie, 24, 26, 48–50
Cathedral of Love. See churches
cheerleading, 17, 23, 37, 43, 63, 65, 80, 91, (p.240) 101–2, 106–9, 116, 118, 122, 127, 132, 159, 162
Ching, Barbara, 175, 204
churches, 6, 14–15, 17, 22, 24, 29, 31, 33, 41, 45, 52, 54, 78–79, 109, 131, 133, 136–44, 154–56, 164, 169, 177, 178, 179, 185, 192, 195, 215–16;
Cathedral of Love, 137–40, 143;
Jericho Baptist, 137–39, 143
Clarke, Kamari Maxine, 129, 220
Coach Fireman, 119–25, 213
Coach Jones, 114, 117, 133, 154–55, 157–60, 162, 173
community:
behavior, 34;
black, 8, 17, 54, 78, 83;
rural, 32, 69, 83, 146, 154, 160, 172, 181, 202, 225;
white, 47, 53, 74
“compound lifestyle,” 18, 44, 202
country, the:
accent, 37;
children, 61;
folks, 61;
girls, 39;
identity, 145;
life, 28, 161;
residents, 62;
road, 38;
schools, 48, 59, 120;
stores, 15, 52
country music. See music
cousin Janie, 30–31
cousin Lewis, 24–26, 33, 48–49, 106
cousin Tiffany, 22, 25, 28, 30, 82, 87–88, 97, 101, 131, 209
Creed, Gerald, 175, 204
crunk. See hip-hop
culture:
black, 165, 190, 201, 213, 218;
capitalist, 11;
football, 7–8, 17, 47, 95, 162;
Hamilton’s, 154, 172;
hip-hop, 5, 6, 160, 163, 173, 221, 223;
street, 96;
Daniels, Jacob, 52, 54, 127, 155
Darius, 166–67
Darnel. See Taylor, Darnel
desegregation, 19, 60, 207, 224
Dirty South. See hip-hop
Down South. See hip-hop
Dreamkeepers: Successful Teachers of African American Children, The, 190
Du Bois, W. E. B., 6, 201, 219
Edna, 22, 25, 28
educational system. See school system
entertainment, 15, 57, 84, 107, 157–60, 162, 170, 172
Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Organization of Culture Difference, 13, 200
Falk, William, 31, 151, 153
false consciousness, 13, 126
Fighting Temptations, 26, 166
Foley, Douglas E., 8, 11, 214–15, 221
Food Network, 6, 167, 185
football, 6, 63, 71, 80, 113, 162;
coaches, 81, 118–20, 123, 213;
culture, 7–8, 17, 47, 95, 162;
drama, 96, 110–15, 122–25, 177, 213;
games, 17, 29, 47–48, 50, 63, 77, 124, 206;
players, 113, 115;
program, 80, 118, 125;
sea-son, 114, 122–23, 125, 159, 162;
team, 8, 13, 19, 22, 58, 63, 70, 81, 95–96, 110, 112, 115–16, 120, 122, 127, 147, 163–64, 184
(p.241) Frankfurt School of Critical Sociology, 14, 221
Frederick, Marla, 136
Freire, Paolo, 129
Friedman, Jonathan, 13
Generation X, 155–56
Gintis, Herbert, 67
girlfriends, 192
gospel music. See music
gossip, 95, 104, 109–10, 125, 127–28, 159, 161, 169
Hall, Stuart, 130, 161, 215, 217, 220–21, 223–24
Hamilton’s culture. See culture
hegemony, 15, 111, 129, 142, 205, 217
hierarchy, 6, 175, 178;
local, 175;
political economic, 69, 175;
socioeconomic, 67, 178
hip-hop, 5–6, 8, 25, 146, 157–63, 165–66, 169–71, 173, 176–78, 193, 210, 218, 221–23;
culture, 5, 6, 160, 163, 173, 221, 223;
“crunk,” 8, 85, 147, 153, 156, 161–66, 173, 177, 180, 185, 224;
Dirty South, 161, 163, 171, 173;
Down South, 161, 170–72, 178;
“lyrical,” 147, 156, 163, 173
Hobsbawm, Eric, 13–14
Holland, Dorothy, 14, 178, 214–15, 225
homeless, 75, 221
homeownership, 8, 75
hometowns, 14, 68, 114, 224
humor, 7, 9, 20, 22, 36, 77, 110, 121, 167, 178, 182, 214
Hurston, Zora Neale, 136
hybridities, 10, 173, 180, 210, 220, 223
I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, 144
identity:
country, 145;
ethnic, 13, 194, 218;
racial, 14, 147–48, 150, 201, 219;
rural, 8, 14, 145, 148, 157, 161, 169, 172, 175, 177, 204
Identity and Agency in Cultural Worlds, 14, 178, 214, 225
identity politics. See politics
images, 9, 11, 15, 70–72, 74, 92, 103, 129, 158–60, 173, 180, 193, 207, 210, 218
In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio, 96, 211
inequality, 7–8, 12–13, 15, 69, 75, 126, 129, 136, 148, 177–79, 181, 198, 201, 205–7, 225;
class, 12, 129;
educational, 69, 96, 209;
gender, 129;
political economic, 131;
racial, 125, 129, 131, 195, 201;
social, 12, 111, 129, 131, 148;
structural, 7, 11;
systematic, 86
informal economy, 15, 31
insider/outsider distinction, 7
interpersonal relationships. See relationships
(p.242) Jackson, John, 7, 178, 200, 216, 220, 222
Janelle, 20, 23, 72, 88–89, 92, 99–102, 104, 106–9, 115, 148, 182, 184, 212
Janie. See cousin Janie
jazz. See music
Jericho Baptist. See churches
Jones, Nikki, 130, 196
Jude, 21, 23
Kelly. See Lawrence, Kelly
Kevin, 105, 109
kinship, 21–22, 26–28, 35, 37–38, 40, 42, 44, 151, 196, 202, 211
Knowing Your Place: Rural Identity and Cultural Hierarchy, 175, 204
Kozol, Jonathan, 67
LaBennett, Oneka, 129, 202, 214, 221
labor patterns, 131
Ladson-Billings, Gloria, 190
Lagasse, Emeril, 5, 167–68, 185
Last Chance School. See Jay Ellis School
laziness, 24, 92, 154–56, 177
Learning Capitalist Culture, 8, 11, 198, 214–15, 221
Lewis. See cousin Lewis
lifestyle, 4, 8, 11, 18, 28, 33, 44, 155, 157–58, 160–61, 202
Lil Flip, 162
liminal spaces, 177–78
Lipsitz, George, 86, 93, 195, 224
long-term relationships. See relationships
Luckman, Thomas, 68–69, 206
“lyrical” (hip-hop). See hip-hop
Marengo County:
Board of Education, 187;
superintendent, 96
Marx, Karl, 11–12, 206
Marxism, 11–13, 67, 199, 205, 214
McDermott, Ray, 68
McLaren, Peter, 12–13, 177–78, 199, 213–14
middle class, 6, 11, 18, 88, 175, 190, 196–98, 201, 209, 217
Miller, Sam, 103, 148–50, 152, 166–68
minstrelsy, 92, 210
misfortune, 7, 12, 19, 95–96, 110–11, 116–17, 120, 122, 124–29, 159, 177, 179, 202
misogyny, 158, 173, 176
moral panics, 5, 19, 157, 171, 173, 176, 195, 221, 223
Mr. Buford, 64, 132
(p.243) Mr. Donaldson, 75, 79–81, 118–20, 189–90, 212
Mr. Edwards, 4, 50–51, 55–56, 59, 76, 78, 152–53, 155
Mr. Gaines, 117, 154
Ms. Moore, 4–5, 46, 50, 63, 77–79, 105, 107, 112, 115–18, 120–21, 133, 187, 213
Ms. Roberts, 64–65
Ms. Scott, 83, 93, 108, 132–33, 212
Ms. Smith, 22–23, 48–50, 55–58, 60, 64, 72, 78–79, 112, 115, 117, 213
music, 3, 18, 25, 46, 57, 63–64, 70, 87, 130, 155–56, 158–67, 169–73, 176–78, 180, 183–85, 189, 191–92, 218, 221;
blues, 167, 170, 177;
country, 165, 177;
gospel, 5, 166–67, 179–80, 185;
jazz, 136, 139, 170, 184;
R&B (rhythm and blues), 159, 163, 165, 170, 185. See also hip-hop
music videos, 16, 158–59, 162, 167, 171
Nelly, 158, 224
No Child Left Behind Act, 3, 47, 50, 62, 86, 188
North, the, 14, 147–51, 185, 193, 210
objectification, 175
oppression, 7, 128–30, 136, 141–42, 165, 176, 178, 194, 219;
gender, 7;
racial, 7, 217;
women’s, 216
Ortner, Sherry, 10
out-migration, 131
Parker, Melissa. See Missy
Pastor Troy and the Congregation, 5, 164, 171
Patrick, 71, 90–92
Pedagogy of the Oppressed, 129
P.J., 71, 90–92
poetry, 136, 164–65
political economy, 6, 17, 74, 92–93, 129, 131, 199, 207, 213
politics, 117, 146–47, 193;
class, 217;
gender, 217;
identity, 86, 93;
intraracial, 217
politics of family life, 147
politics of respectability, 221–22
politics of representation, 146, 217
popular culture. See culture
Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Benefit from Identity Politics, The, 93, 205
poverty, 4–5, 9, 18, 29, 31, 44, 75, 81, 86, 93, 180, 196, 203
“practice theory,” 7, 10
R&B (rhythm and blues). See music
race relations, 6, 14, 74
racism, 6–7, 14, 19, 47, 60–62, 67, 74, 86–87, 93, 96, 111, 129, 148, 175, 194, 197, 205, 207, 210, 215, 217, 222
Ranger, Terrence, 13–14
rap. See hip-hop
rebellion, 125, 133, 214
relationships:
interpersonal, 147, 165, 223;
long-term, 156, 160
Remarcke, John, 112–24, 126, 212–13
resistance, 6, 8, 12, 19, 125, 129–34, 137, 139, 142–43, 145, 161, 165, 177–79, 196, 213–15, 219, 221–23;
school, 19, 133, 142
Resistance and Rituals, 130
Rose, Tricia, 171, 218, 221
Rosenwald, Julius, 53
Rosenwald fund, 52–55, 60, 204, 209
rural area, 5–6, 148, 176, 201, 203–4, 208
rural community. See community
rural environment, 68, 181
(p.244) rural life, 21
rural schools. See schools
rural South, 5–6, 8, 31, 59, 147–48, 151, 153, 168, 195, 204, 215
rural youth. See youth
ruralism, 147
rurality, 4–5, 9, 145, 175, 177, 180
Sam. See Miller, Sam
Savage Inequalities, 67
Saved by the Bell, 168, 172, 178
Schneider, David, 24, 110, 211
school attendance, 61–62, 131, 189
School Improvement Grants (SIG), 186, 188–89
school resistance. See resistance
school system, 6–7, 12, 19, 47, 60, 64, 67–69, 72–73, 76, 78–79, 81–83, 85, 87–88, 90, 93, 96, 113, 125, 129, 176, 195;
Carlyle, 19, 32, 60–61, 72, 83, 87–88, 90, 93, 190, 209
Schooling in Capitalist America, 67
schools:
black, 8, 55, 73, 76, 175, 204;
country, 48, 59, 120;
rural, 3–4, 46, 49, 53–54, 73, 85, 113;
Scott, James, 125, 142, 196
self-actualized persons, 134
self-esteem, 100, 141, 143, 153, 159, 165–66, 184
self-expression, 159, 163, 165, 169, 173
She’s Mad Real: Popular Culture and the West Indian Girls in Brooklyn, 129, 196
“sincerity,” 178, 220, 222
Smitherman, Geneva, 98–99, 102, 105, 211
social change, 111, 126, 142, 157
social class, 11–13, 145, 208–9
social cohesion, 128
Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge, The, 68–69, 74, 206
social drama, 13, 19, 96–97, 99, 111–12, 124, 126–27, 129, 178–79, 186, 212
social interaction, 18
social problems, 6, 126, 195–96
social structure, 20, 69, 95, 111, 125–26, 128, 130, 179, 181, 217
socioeconomic status, 26, 32–33, 37, 40, 219
Souls of Black Folks, The, 6, 201, 219
spirituality, 6–8, 12, 19, 132, 134, 136–39, 142–43, 178, 215–16
Spivak, Gayarti, 129, 214
Stack, Carol, 28, 33, 44, 195
stereotype threat, 210
stereotypes, 5–6, 8, 29, 35, 66–68, 72, 92, 148–50, 168, 171–72, 180, 190, 210
street culture. See culture
subaltern, 129, 205, 214
subjective center, 20
Successful Failure: The School America Builds, 68, 215
Superintendent Donaldson. See Mr. Donaldson
Sylvan Learning Center, 17, 70
Taylor, Darnel, 20, 22, 35, 58, 124, 152, 163–65, 182, 184
television, 16, 18, 25, 29, 63, 68, 95, 103, 111, 144, 153, 156, 158, 163, 167–68, 172–73, 175, 184, 191–92, 223
Thomas, Deborah, 129
T.I., 159–60
Tiffany. See cousin Tiffany
“Tip Drill,” 158–59
translocal, 9, 19, 130, 141, 146, 173, 180
travel, 5, 14, 16–17, 24, 54, 60, 64, 85, 142, 148, 150–51, 172, 174–75, 219
“truly disadvantaged,” 11, 23, 197
Tupac, 170–71
Turner, Victor, 13, 96, 99, 111, 125, 177–78, 213
Usher, 165, 170
Varenne, Herve, 68, 215
video games, 25, 31, 153, 167. See also Xboxes
Washington, Booker T., 53
Weapons of the Weak, 125, 196, 213
Weber, Max, 11, 199
West, Cornel, 7, 196, 219
“white flight,” 74
“white only” prom, 6, 87, 93
whites, 14–15, 18, 27, 52, 54–55, 68, 70, 74–75, 81–83, 85, 87–93, 122, 148, 166, 175, 186, 194, 201–2, 208–10;
board of education, 209;
children, 6, 55, 87, 89, 147–48, 193;
community, 47, 53, 74;
families, 202;
family income, 75;
institutions, 175;
homes, 75;
households, 15, 75;
landlords, 27;
parents, 87;
population, 75;
public opinion, 47;
racial hostility, 208;
schools, 55, 61–63, 78;
students, 59–60, 87, 90, 93, 190;
supremacy, 86;
teenager, 87
Wilson, William Julius, 11, 196–97
working class, 11, 175, 177, 197, 201, 208–9, 217
Xboxes, 144, 154, 167. See also video games
Yanagisako, Sylvia, 44, 205
“You Don’t Know Me,” 90, 128, 159–60
Young, Virginia Heyer, 34
youth:
black, 3, 5, 15, 20, 29, 70, 145, 147, 157, 176, 210;
rural, 5, 182
youth culture. See culture