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. The Fortified City

. The Fortified City

(p.66) 2. The Fortified City
Voice of the Leopard
Ivor L. Miller
University Press of Mississippi

This chapter describes the roles of free urban blacks, urban cabildos de nación (African nation-groups), fugitives from slavery living in Havana, workers on the wharves of Havana, battalions of blacks and mulattos who worked there also, Hispanicized free urban blacks known as black curros, as well as the multiple anticolonial movements in the early 1800s; and how all of these strands impacted the emergence of Abakuá in the 1830s.

Keywords:   Havana, Cuba, Abakuá, free urban blacks, urban cabildos de nación, fugitives, mulattos

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