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The Green DepressionAmerican Ecoliterature in the 1930s and 1940s$

Matthew M. Lambert

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9781496830401

Published to University Press of Mississippi: May 2021

DOI: 10.14325/mississippi/9781496830401.001.0001

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(p.201) Index

(p.201) Index

Source:
The Green Depression
Publisher:
University Press of Mississippi
Abbey, Edward, 173n5
Adams, Ansel, 169
African American folklore, 9, 15, 61, 87–93, 96–97, 128
African Americans:
and cities, 101, 117–18, 123–24;
and colonialism, 17, 132–33, 157–60, 165;
and environmental thought, 18, 76, 77–78, 87;
and flooding, 68, 69, 80–86, 94–96;
and the New Deal, 6, 7;
and science fiction, 157, 160–61, 189n22;
and sharecropping, 68, 73–74, 77;
and the South, 15, 61, 68–70, 73, 76–97;
and stereotypes, 16, 68, 78–79, 85, 117, 119, 120, 125–26, 128, 188n21;
and technology, 157–58, 160–63, 165
Afrofuturism, 189n22
agrarianism, 62, 179n4
Agricultural Administration Agency (AAA), 7
Algren, Nelson, 110, 128, 129;
and literary naturalism, 106;
Never Come Morning, 15–16, 105;
and place, 102, 105–6, 128;
and sociology, 9;
and urban parks, 101, 105
Allen, Mary, 121–22, 125
American Indian Federation (AIF), 55
American Indians:
and conservationist thought, 49;
and the Dust Bowl, 51–52, 179n23;
and the frontier, 14, 43–52, 56–57, 147;
and the Indian Reorganization Act, 8, 43, 52–56, 57;
and the New Deal, 6
American Institute of Planners (AIP), 132, 138
“—And the Moon Be Still as Bright” (Bradbury), 146–47
animal studies, 118
antipastoral, 15, 61, 75, 76, 77, 81, 86, 137
Arctic Village (Marshall), 22, 42, 175n1
Asimov, Isaac, 144
atom (atomic) bomb, 4, 6, 146, 150–52, 161, 166, 167, 186n7, 187n16;
and Carson, 156, 188n20;
and gender, 17, 132, 145, 152, 153–56;
and the human body, 9, 17, 129, 152–53, 156;
and the natural world, 17, 129, 156;
and science fiction, 150–51, 152–53, 154–55, 156;
and the technological sublime, 151;
and US censorship, 151–52
Attaway, William, 180n8, 185n7
Bailey, William J., 163–64
Baldwin, James, 119, 128
Bambi (Disney), 14, 22–23, 24–28, 175n2
Bambi: A Life in the Forest (Salten), 24, 27, 175n2
Bauer, Catherine, 143, 185n5
“Bear, The” (Faulkner), 29, 31–34
Bel Geddes, Norman, 135
Berman, Marshall, 135
“Big Boy Leaves Home” (Wright), 77–80, 180n11
Black Empire (Schuyler), 17, 157–63, 165, 189n22 (p.202)
Black No More (Schuyler), 161
Blish, James, 145
Blood on the Forge (Attaway), 180n8, 185n7
Boas, Franz, 9
boll weevil songs, 93–94
BP oil spill, 170
Bradbury, Ray:
and African Americans, 188n21;
and the atom bomb, 17, 150–51, 156–57, 166;
and the frontier, 17, 132, 145–50, 152, 156–57, 166;
The Martian Chronicles, 17, 145–51, 187n13, 188n21
Bradley, David, 155
“Bright and Morning Star” (Wright), 77, 181n14
Brinkley, Douglas, 4, 173n2
Bronx Park, 107–8
Broun, Maurice, 168
Brower, David, 4, 167
Buell, Lawrence, 12, 32, 102, 103, 118, 144
Bureau of Biological Survey (BBS), 7, 28, 176n7
Bureau of Fisheries, 168
Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), 49, 52, 53, 54, 55–56, 57
Burgess, Ernest, 9
Burke, Edmund, 185n6
Burns, Ken, 19, 171, 189n1
Butler, Octavia, 18–19
Caldwell, Erskine:
and the antipastoral, 15, 61, 73, 75–76, 86, 96;
Tobacco Road, 75–76, 86–87
Cappetti, Carla, 104, 174n7
Carson, Rachel, 4, 9;
and Hawk Mountain, 168, 173n4;
and nuclear testing, 156, 189n20;
Silent Spring, 132, 156, 166, 167, 169, 173n4, 188n18, 188n19
Cartmill, Matt, 25, 26, 27, 176n4
Chicago School of Sociology, 9, 174n7
Chicago World’s Fair (1934), 164
Cities in Flight (Blish), 145
City, The (Steiner and Van Dyke), 9, 132, 134, 138–43, 166, 179n1, 186n19
Civic Films, 138
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), 6–7, 21, 145, 171, 173n2
Civil War, 70, 74
Civil Works Administration (CWA), 99
Claude, George, 161
climate change, 170, 171
Cole, Terrence, 175n1
Collier, John, 43, 52, 53, 54, 55, 179n24
colonialism:
and Africa, 38, 40–41, 157–60, 165, 166;
and the American frontier, 17, 24, 42, 43, 48, 145–50, 166;
and technology, 17, 146, 157–58, 187n14
Communist Party USA, 181n14
conservation:
and American Indians, 49;
changes in, 4, 6, 28, 59, 88, 97, 168, 173n2;
and hunters, 33, 35–36, 177n10;
and predators, 28;
and preservation, 7–8;
and wilderness, 57
Cooper, Merian C., 120
Copland, Aaron, 138, 169
Corona Ash Dump, 132, 136
Cronon, William, 4, 42
Csicsery-Ronay, Istvan, Jr., 132, 133, 153, 185n6
Cultural Front, The (Denning), 144
Culvin, Christina, 69, 178n14
Dakota Access Pipeline, 170
Daniel, Julia E., 182n4
D’Arcy McNickle Center for American Indian and Indigenous Studies, 56
Dawahare, Anthony, 113–14
Dawes Act, 43, 53
DDT, 132, 156, 166, 168, 188n20
Death and Life of Great American Cities, The (Jacobs), 142
deep ecology, 177n11 (p.203)
del Gizzo, Suzanne, 40, 178n21
“Delta Autumn” (Faulkner), 29, 30, 33
Denning, Michael, 5–6, 12, 13, 101–2, 144, 174n14
depression-era authors/works, 5–6
Dery, Mark, 189n22
Dick, Philip K., 187n15
Dies, Martin, 56
Disney, Walt:
and animals, 14, 26, 27, 57, 175n2;
and hunting, 22–23, 24, 25, 27–28, 176n3;
and predators, 27, 177n9
Doctorow, E. L., 134, 135
“Down by the Riverside” (Wright), 68, 80–86, 95, 180n12
Du Bois, W. E. B., 74
Dumbo (Disney), 176n5
Dust Bowl:
and American Indians, 51–52, 173n23;
causes of, 3–4, 22, 39, 149;
and contemporary interest, 18–19, 22, 39, 171, 189n1;
effects of, 3–4, 173n1;
and other environmental disasters, 146, 156, 167
Dust Bowl, The (Burns), 19, 171, 189n1
Dust Tracks on the Road (Hurston), 87
dystopia, 158–59, 160
ecopastoral, 60, 88, 174n13
Edge, Rosalie, 3–4, 5, 7, 25, 168, 173n4, 177n8
Egan, Timothy, 4, 52, 173n2, 179n23, 189n1
Einstein, Albert, 188n20
Empson, William, 175n15
End Poverty in California (EPIC), 145
Entin, Joseph, 102, 119–20, 181n3
environmentalism:
and Carson, 4, 9, 132, 156, 166, 167–68, 169, 188n20;
development of, 4, 5, 18, 21, 97, 151, 167–68;
and the postpastoral, 100;
and technology, 9, 132, 151, 156, 166
environmental justice, 5, 24, 100, 167, 169, 170;
and African Americans, 80, 95–97, 128–29;
and American Indians, 43
Fanning, Charles, 106
Farrell, James T., 9, 102, 110, 129;
and the Studs Lonigan trilogy, 106, 182n6;
and urban pastoralism, 15–16, 101, 103–7, 110, 128;
Young Lonigan, 15–16, 103–5, 141
Faulkner, William:
and deforestation, 14;
and ecocriticism, 33, 177n12;
Go Down, Moses, 14, 29–34, 68–69;
and the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927, 29–30;
and hunting, 9, 14, 23, 28–29, 31–33, 34, 39;
and predators, 31–33, 96;
and race, 68–69, 178n14;
and wilderness, 35, 41, 57
Fekete, John, 65
female grotesque, 153, 187n17
Ferguson, Jeffrey B., 161
Finney, Carolyn, 78
“Fire and Cloud” (Wright), 77, 181n14
Fish and Wildlife Service, 168, 176n7
Fishman, Robert, 136, 143
Fitzgerald, F. Scott, 11, 132, 137, 185n3
Fleming, Victor, 60
Flint, Michigan, water crisis, 170
Flores, Dan, 177n9
Florida Negro, The (Hurston), 88
frontier, 14–15, 23, 59, 62, 179n2;
and Africa, 35, 39;
and American Indians, 41–46, 49, 51–54, 56–57;
and the Dust Bowl, 22, 39, 51–52;
and science fiction, 17, 145–50, 157, 166
Futurama (General Motors), 131, 134–36, 138, 141, 142, 184n1, 185n2
Futurians, 144–45, 186n12
garden city, 8, 138, 139, 141, 142, 185n5
garden myth (“garden of the world”). See myths and symbols
Geilern, Monika, 183n13
gentrification, 109, 129 (p.204)
ghetto pastoral, 13, 101–2, 103, 174n14
Giesen, James C., 93–94
Gifford, Terry, 13, 100, 174n13
Gillette, Howard, Jr., 142, 185n4
Glickman, Stephen E., 36, 37, 178n18
Go Down, Moses (Faulkner), 14, 29–34, 39, 69
“Go Gator and Muddy the Water” (Hurston), 88
Gold, Mike:
Jews Without Money, 16, 107–10, 116, 140, 141;
and urban parks, 107–8;
and urban pastoralism, 16, 101, 107–10, 113, 114, 128, 129;
and vacant lots, 108–10
Gone with the Wind (film), 15, 63–64, 70–71
Goyal, Yogita, 159
Gray, Jesse, 124, 184n20
Great Depression, 5, 6, 8, 157, 182n4, 183n10;
and the New York World’s Fair, 131;
and science fiction, 144–45;
and the South, 58, 63, 64
Great Gatsby, The (Fitzgerald), 11, 132, 137–38
Great Mississippi Flood of 1927:
causes of, 30, 146;
and Faulkner, 30–31;
influence of, 4, 6, 167;
and Percy, 67;
and Wright, 80, 81
Great Recession, 170
Green, Tara T., 80, 83, 84, 86
Greenbelt, Maryland, 141, 142
Greenbelt towns, 138, 139, 140–41, 143, 185n5
Green Hills of Africa (Hemingway), 14, 23, 35–41, 42
Green Mars (Robinson), 149
“Green Morning, The” (Bradbury), 148–50
Green New Deal, 170–71
grotesque:
and gender (female grotesque), 153–54, 187n17;
and literary naturalism, 102, 115;
and science fiction (sci fi grotesque), 134, 144, 145, 148–50, 152–54, 157–58, 187n17;
and technology, 131–32, 137, 138, 139, 144, 145, 152–54, 157–58, 166
Gruesser, John, 158, 159
Gulf Stream, 178n20
Guthrie, Woody, 169
Haraway, Donna, 183n15
Hawk Mountain, 168, 173n4, 177n8
Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 181n1
Headrick, Daniel R., 187n14
Hediger, Ryan, 35
Heinlein, Robert, 145
Hellenbrand, Harold, 120
Heller, Edmund, 178n18
Hemingway, Ernest:
and Africa, 35, 37–41;
and conservation, 34–36, 41, 178n16, 178n19;
and ecocriticism, 178n15, 179n19;
and the frontier, 39, 40;
Green Hills of Africa, 14, 23, 35–41, 42;
on the Gulf Stream, 178n20;
and hunting, 9, 23, 34–39, 41, 178nn16–17;
and predators, 14, 23, 28–29, 36–39, 96;
and race, 40–41, 178n21;
and wilderness, 14, 23, 41, 57
Hersey, John, 152, 155
Hetch Hetchy Valley, 7
Hicks, Scott, 88
Hill, Robert A., 159, 160
Homestead Act, 64
Howard, Ebenezer, 8, 185n5
“How ‘Bigger’ Was Born” (Wright), 119, 121
Hurricane Katrina, 170
Hurston, Zora Neale:
and animals, 87–93, 95, 96, 181n17;
and anthropology, 9, 89;
and black folklore, 15, 61, 87–93, 94, 128;
Dust Tracks on a Road, 87;
and ecocriticism, 181n15;
and flooding, 94–96;
The Florida Negro, 88;
and hoodoo, 88, 92;
Jonah’s Gourd Vine, 94;
Mules and Men, 89–93; (p.205)
and pests, 92–93, 94, 96, 128, 183n12;
and predators, 89–92, 94, 96, 128, 183n12;
and race, 68, 73, 87, 95–96;
Their Eyes Were Watching God, 68, 73, 94–96, 181n17;
and Wright, 95, 128, 183n12
I’ll Take My Stand (Southern Agrarians), 15, 62
Indian Reorganization Act (“Indian New Deal”), 23, 43, 45, 52, 55, 179n24
Interstellar (Nolan), 19, 171, 189n1
Jacobs, Jane, 142
Jews Without Money (Gold), 16, 107–10, 116, 140, 141
Jezebel (film), 15, 71–73
Jonah’s Gourd Vine (Hurston), 94
Judgment Day (Farrell), 106
Jungle Book, The (Disney), 176n5
Kant, Immanuel, 185n6
Kazin, Alfred, 13
Keck, George, 164
Kelley, Robin D. G., 7, 74
King Kong (Schoedsack and Cooper), 120
Kitunda, Jeremiah M., 37–38
Knight, Damon, 144–45
Kohli, Amor, 157, 159, 160
Kolodny, Annette, 70–71, 174n9
Kreyling, Michael, 65
La Cava, Gregory, 182n10
Ladino, Jennifer, 179n4
Lady and the Tramp (Disney), 176n5
La Farge, Oliver, 55
Lake Okeechobee flood (1928), 95
Lamont, Victoria, 152, 154–55
“land-as-woman.” See myths and symbols
Land Utilization Project, 54
Lanterns on the Levee (Percy), 15, 62–63, 66–67, 69–70, 180n6
Lavender, Isiah, 161
Le Corbusier, 136
Ledbetter, Huddie “Lead Belly,” 94, 169
Lee, Martyn, 105–6
Leiber, Fritz, 155
Leonard, Elisabeth Anne, 188n21
Leopold, Aldo:
and the CCC, 7;
and conservation, 5, 7–8, 9, 25, 41;
death of, 168;
and the Dust Bowl, 29, 177n11;
and environmentalism, 168–69;
and hunting, 23, 34, 39;
and “land ethic,” 33;
and predators, 5, 23, 25, 28–29, 31, 32, 90, 96, 173n4;
A Sand County Almanac, 168–69;
“Thinking Like a Mountain,” 29, 31, 173n4;
and wilderness, 22, 34, 39, 41, 57, 173n5
Levine, Lawrence W., 89
Lin Yutang, 169
Lion King, The (Disney), 176n5
literary naturalism, 13, 49, 100, 101–2, 106, 121, 174n14, 181n2
“Locusts, The” (Bradbury), 147–48
Lomax, Alan, 94
“Long Black Song” (Wright), 77, 78
Lorentz, Pare, 138
Lovecraft, H. P., 170
Machor, James, 99–100, 174n9, 181n1
Madrigal, Alex, 164
Maher, Neil, 4, 21, 173n2
Major, William H., 179n4
“Man Who Lived Underground, The” (Wright), 121, 184n18
“Man Who Went to Chicago, The” (Wright), 184n18
Markey, Ed, 170
Marshall, Robert:
Arctic Village, 22, 42, 175n1;
and the CCC, 7–8;
and conservation, 7–8, 22;
and death, 168;
and the frontier, 22, 42–43, 175n1; (p.206)
and the Indian Reorganization Act, 54–55;
and politics, 22, 42, 178n22;
and wilderness, 173n5
Martian Chronicles, The (Bradbury), 17, 145–51, 157, 187n13
Marx, Leo, 10–12, 112–13, 174n12
McCarthy, B. Eugene, 77
McCarthy, Joseph, 56
McNickle, D’Arcy:
and American Indians, 14–15, 23, 41–42, 43–54, 55–57;
and the BIA, 52–54, 55–56;
and the Dust Bowl, 51–52;
and the frontier, 14–15, 23, 41–42, 43–54, 56;
influence of, 56;
and literary naturalism, 49;
and the Newberry Library, 56;
The Surrounded, 14, 23, 42, 43–52;
and wilderness, 46–49, 55;
Wind from an Enemy Sky, 179n23
Melosi, Martin V., 111
Melville, Herman, 11
Merril, Judith:
and atom bombs, 9, 17, 145, 152–53, 154–57, 166;
and the Futurians, 144;
and gender, 17, 132, 145, 152–56, 166;
and the grotesque, 132, 153–54;
politics of, 144–45, 155;
Shadow on the Hearth, 17, 154–56;
“That Only a Mother,” 17, 152–54
Mille, Benjamin, 137
Miller, Donald L., 185n4
“Misfit” (Heinlein), 145
“Mississippi Boweavil Blues” (Patton), 93–94
Mississippi River, 67
Moby-Dick (Melville), 11, 112–13, 182n9
Moore, C. L., 170, 187n17
Morrison, Philip, 155
Morton, Timothy, 102, 103, 118–19
Moses, Robert, 8, 99, 135
Moylan, Tom, 160
Mules and Men (Hurston), 9, 89–93
Mumford, Lewis:
and The City (film), 9, 134, 138, 142, 143, 186n10;
and the garden city, 8, 142, 143, 185n5;
on utopia, 133–34
“Murders in the Rue Morgue, The” (Poe), 120
Murphy, Charlene M., 178n19
My Man Godfrey (La Cava), 182n10
myths and symbols, 10, 174n9;
garden of the world (Smith), 59, 62, 65, 70, 73, 174n9;
land-as-woman (Kolodny), 70–71, 174n9;
pastoral city (Machor), 99–100, 117, 129;
plantation myth (Smith), 64, 65, 66, 70;
technological sublime (Nye), 17, 131–40, 143–44, 145–58, 160–63, 165–66
Native Americans. See American Indians
Native Son (Wright):
and apes, 117, 120, 125–26, 128, 184n19;
and Baldwin, 119;
and ecocriticism, 117–18, 183n13;
and rats, 16, 101, 117–18, 120–24, 128, 183n13;
and urban pastoralism, 117, 180n13
Never Come Morning (Algren), 15–16, 105, 106
New Agrarianism, 179n4
Newberry Library, 56
New Deal:
and African Americans, 6, 7;
and agriculture, 7, 59;
and American Indians, 6, 53, 54, 55;
and conservation, 6–7;
and the frontier, 42;
and the Greenbelt towns, 138, 141, 143, 185n5;
and the Green New Deal, 170–71;
and science fiction, 145;
and scientists, 8–9;
and urban parks, 8, 99
Newell, Dianne, 152, 154–55
New York World’s Fair (1939):
The City (film), 138–43;
and the Corona Ash Dump, 136–38;
GM’s Futurama, 134–36;
and technology, 16–17, 131–32, 133, 143, 151, 163, 165–66, 185n4;
and urban pastoralism, 136 (p.207)
Nicholls, David G., 89
Niggli, Josefina, 169
Nixon, Rob, 16, 111, 116
Nolan, Christopher, 19, 171, 189n1
nuclear fallout. See atom (atomic) bomb
Nye, David, 17, 131, 139, 174n9, 185n2
Obata, Chiura, 169
Ocasio-Cortez, Alexandria, 170
O’Connor, Terry, 183n15
“Off Season, The” (Bradbury), 150
Okubo, Miné, 169
Olsen, Tillie:
and dumps, 16, 113–17, 182n10, 184n21;
and urban pastoralism, 16, 101, 110, 111–13, 128;
Yonnondio, 16, 110–17
Our Daily Bread (Vidor), 179n1
Outka, Paul, 18, 68
“Pantaloon in Black” (Faulkner), 69
Park, Robert, 9
Parker, Dorothy R., 44–45, 49, 53
Parrish, Susan Scott, 29–30
Parry, Tyler, 181n16
Parton, James, 139
pastoralism, 10–14, 112–13, 174n14, 175n15;
and the South, 60–61, 62–64, 75, 86, 97
“pastoral city.” See myths and symbols; urban pastoralism
Patton, Charley, 93–94
Percy, William Alexander:
background of, 180n6;
and the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927, 67, 81;
and nature, 66–67;
and race, 69–70;
and sharecropping, 62–63, 73, 74;
and the South, 15, 60, 65;
and the Southern Agrarians, 62–63, 65, 66, 73, 180n6
Phillips, Sarah, 4, 173n2
Pick, Anat, 31
Pinchot, Gifford, 6, 177n13
Pinocchio (Disney), 176n5
Pittsburgh Courier, 157, 158
Pizer, Donald, 13
place, 100, 102–3, 109, 110, 113, 114, 129
plantation myth. See myths and symbols
Poe, Edgar Allan, 120
Pohl, Frederick, 144, 186n12
Popular Front, 5–6, 18
postpastoral, 13, 15, 100, 117, 174n13
predator eradication:
and the Bureau of Biological Survey, 7, 28, 176n7, 176n8;
and the Civilian Conservation Corps, 173n6;
and conservation, 24, 25, 29, 36, 39, 97;
critiques of, 5, 24, 25, 28, 29, 167, 173n4;
and the Fish and Wildlife Service, 176n7
predators and pests:
bears, 31–33, 34, 39;
boll weevils, 75–76, 89, 92–94,
coyotes, 25, 28, 50, 176n8;
hawks, 5, 25, 173n4, 177n8;
hyenas, 36–39, 176n5, 178n18;
wolves, 5, 25, 28, 29, 36, 39, 176n8
proletarian literature, 144
Ransom, John Crowe, 60, 62, 64, 73, 180n6
Rasmussen, R. Kent, 159, 160
“Reconstructed but Unregenerate” (Ransom), 62, 64
Reconstruction, 70
Reiger, Christopher, 15, 60, 64, 75–76, 88, 174n13
Reiger, John F., 177n10
“Remarks on the Southern Religion” (Tate), 66
renewable energy, 163–65, 189n23, 189n24
Resources for Freedom (1950), 164
Ricketts, Edward (Ed), 168, 174n8
Rivera, Diego, 169 (p.208)
Robinson, Kim Stanley, 149
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano (FDR), 21, 43, 168, 171, 173n2, 188n20
Roosevelt, Theodore, 6, 178n18
Ruffin, Kimberly, 18, 76, 87, 117, 180n5
Salten, Felix, 24, 27, 175n2
Sand County Almanac, A (Leopold), 168–69, 173n4
Saroyan, William, 169, 175n14
Saxon, Lyle, 177n13
science:
and the atom bomb, 151–52, 155;
and the Depression, 8–9;
and the environment, 133;
and the New York World’s Fair, 17, 141, 163, 184n1;
and race, 157;
and the Southern Agrarians, 62, 64, 65
science fiction (sci-fi):
and the atom bomb, 152;
and ecocriticism, 18, 133, 144, 186n11;
and politics, 144–45, 186n12;
on technology, 17, 132–33, 143–45
Schoedsack, Ernest B., 120
Schuyler, George:
and Afrofuturism, 189n22;
Black Empire, 157–63, 165;
Black No More, 161;
on colonialism, 17, 132–33, 157–58, 160, 161, 162, 166;
on technology, 17, 132–33, 157–58, 160–61, 166, 189n23
Seed, David, 145, 149, 187n13
sf grotesque, 132, 133, 145
Shadow on the Hearth (Merril), 17, 154–56
Shahn, Ben, 169
“Shambleau” (Moore), 187n17
Sharecroppers’ Union (SCU), 7
sharecropping, 60, 70, 73–75, 77, 93–94
Silent Spring (Carson), 132, 144, 156, 166, 167, 169, 173n4, 188nn18–19
Sinclair, Upton, 145
slavery, 60, 63, 72
Smith, Henry Nash, 10, 59, 64, 174n9
Smith, Kimberly, 18
Song of the South (Disney), 176n5
Soper, Kate, 34
Souder, William, 188n20
Southern Agrarians, 15, 59, 62, 65–66, 70, 88, 180n6
Stanton, Andrew, 171, 189n1
Stein, Clarence, 8, 138, 142, 185n5, 186n9
Steinbeck, John, 168, 174n8
Steiner, Ralph, 9, 134, 138, 142–43, 179n1, 186n10
Stevens, Wallace, 182n4
Strychacz, Thomas, 38
suburbs, 142, 143, 170
Sullivan, Robert, 124–25, 184n16, 184n20
Sunnyside, Queens, 186n9
Superstorm Sandy, 170
Surrounded, The (McNickle), 14–15, 23, 42, 43–52, 55, 56
Sutter, Paul S., 7
Tate, Allen, 66
Taylor, Graham D., 53–54, 179n24
technology, 8–9, 129, 132, 133, 167;
and atom bombs, 17, 129, 132, 150–57, 162, 166;
and colonialism, 133, 146, 148, 157–58, 161–62, 166, 187n14;
and the New York World’s Fair, 16–17, 131–32, 134–36, 139, 141, 143, 165–66;
and renewable energy, 161, 163–65, 166
technological sublime. See myths and symbols
“That Only a Mother” (Merril), 17, 152–54, 155
Their Eyes Were Watching God (Hurston), 68, 73, 94–96, 181n17
“There Will Come Soft Rains” (Bradbury), 150–51
Thill, Brian, 137
“Thinking Like a Mountain” (Leopold), 29, 31, 32, 34, 39, 173n4
Thomas, Brennan M., 26–27 (p.209)
Tobacco Road (Caldwell), 75–76, 86–87, 180nn9–10
Trachtenberg, Alan, 10
Truman, Harry, 164
Turner, Frederick Jackson, 14, 23, 42, 43–44, 54, 56
Uncle Tom’s Children (Wright), 76–77, 86, 119, 181n14
urban pastoralism, 99–100, 101, 103, 107, 108, 110, 117, 128–29, 136, 174n9, 181n1;
and dumps, 16, 97, 110, 113–16, 182n7;
and parks, 8, 15–16, 97, 101, 102, 103–8, 110, 129;
and vacant lots, 108–9, 110, 111–13
Urgo, Joseph R., 177n12
utopia, 133–34, 136, 159, 160
Van Dyke, Willard, 9, 134, 138, 142, 179n1, 186n10
WALL-E (Stanton), 171, 189n1
Wardi, Anissa Janine, 80, 86
Washington, Booker T., 74
Washington Park (Chicago), 103–5, 106
“Watchers, The” (Bradbury), 150
Wayne, John, 42
“Way Up in the Middle of the Air” (Bradbury), 157, 188n21
Wellman, William, 182n7
“What You Don’t Know Won’t Hurt You” (Wright), 184n18
Whitman, Walt, 181n1
Wilbur, Charles Dana, 149
Wild Boys of the Road (Wellman), 182n7
Wilderness Act of 1964, 21, 168
Wilderness Society, 22, 168
Williams, Raymond, 61, 174n10
Williams, William Carlos, 182n4
Wilson, Alexander, 109
Wind from an Enemy Sky (McNickle), 179n23
Wirth, Louis, 9
Wise, Benjamin, 73–74
Wolfe, Gary K., 145–46
Works Progress Administration (WPA), 8, 88, 99, 171
World’s Fair (Doctorow), 134, 135
World War II, 21, 132, 143, 168, 176nn2–3
Worster, Donald, 4, 22, 28, 173n2, 189n1
Wright, Henry, 8, 142, 185n5, 186n9
Wright, Richard:
and the antipastoral, 15, 61, 76, 77, 96;
and ecocriticism, 118, 183n13;
and flooding, 68, 80–86;
and the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927, 80;
and Hurston, 95, 183n12;
and Native Son, 117–29;
and place, 102;
and sharecropping, 77;
and sociology, 9;
Uncle Tom’s Children, 76–87;
and urban pastoralism, 101, 117, 180n13;
and violence, 78–80, 82, 85, 180n11
Wyler, William, 60, 71
Yingling, Charlton, 181n16
Yonnondio: From the Thirties (Olsen), 16, 110–16, 182n8, 182n10, 183n10
Young Communist League (YCL), 144, 186n12
Young Lonigan (Farrell), 15–16, 103–5, 106, 141
Zola, Émile, 121 (p.210)