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Anatomy of Four Race Riots – Racial Conflict in Knoxville, Elaine (Arkansas), Tulsa, and Chicago, 1919-1921 - University Press of Mississippi
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Anatomy of Four Race Riots: Racial Conflict in Knoxville, Elaine (Arkansas), Tulsa, and Chicago, 1919-1921

Lee E. Williams and Lee E. Williams II


This is a study of the terrible racial violence that erupted in four different communities of America during the post World War I years, violence that left hundreds dead or injured and a massive amount of destruction in its wake. Although the igniting incident or event varied somewhat, there was a similarity in the racial climate that existed in each town. The emerging blacks, boosted economically and idealistically by the war effort, were viewed as a threat by some of the whites. The bloody riots described here were grave evidence of the intensity of the fear and hatred that existed between a ... More

Keywords: racial violence, racial climate, blacks, war effort, threat, fear, hatred, America, destruction, riots

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2008 Print ISBN-13: 9781604731903
Published to University Press of Mississippi: March 2014 DOI:10.14325/mississippi/9781604731903.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Lee E. Williams, author

Lee E. Williams II, author