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Wolf Tracks – Popular Art and Re-Africanization in Twentieth-Century Panama - University Press of Mississippi
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Wolf Tracks: Popular Art and Re-Africanization in Twentieth-Century Panama

Peter Szok


Popular art is a masculine and working-class genre, associated with Panama’s black population. Its practitioners are self-taught, commercial painters, whose high-toned designs, vibrant portraits, and landscapes appear in cantinas, barbershops, and restaurants. The red devil buses are popular art’s most visible manifestation. The old school buses are imported from the United States and provide public transportation in Colón and Panama City. Their owners hire the artists to attract customers with eye-catching depictions of singers and actors, brassy phrases, and vivid representations of both loc ... More

Keywords: popular art, working-class genre, Panama, commercial painters, red devil buses, festival traditions, rumba, World War II, U.S. soldiers, cabarets

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2012 Print ISBN-13: 9781617032431
Published to University Press of Mississippi: March 2014 DOI:10.14325/mississippi/9781617032431.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Peter Szok, author