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Louisiana Creole LiteratureA Historical Study$

Catharine Savage Brosman

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9781617039102

Published to University Press of Mississippi: May 2014

DOI: 10.14325/mississippi/9781617039102.001.0001

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(p.241) Index

(p.241) Index

Source:
Louisiana Creole Literature
Publisher:
University Press of Mississippi
Abd-el-Kader, 87
Abolitionists, 57, 65, 67, 224n18
Abortion, 54
Acadians. See Cajuns
Adams, Gleason R. W., 82
Adultery, 61, 105, 123, 129
Aegisthus, 113
Aesop, 47
Aesthetics of reception. See Jauss, Hans-Robert
Affaire d’honneur. See Duels
Africa, 110, 173, 175, 180
African American Museum, 14
Africans. See Blacks
Age des Lumières. See Enlightenment
Aimé, Gabriel (Valcour), 119, 144
Alabama, 155, 159, 170. See also Mobile, Alabama
Alciator, Bernard, La Nouvelle Atala, 200n16
Alcohol and drugs, 61, 124, 184
Alcott, Louisa May, 123
Algeria and Algerians, 70, 77
Alexandrines, 23, 34, 43, 48, 76, 81, 86, 117
Allain, Mathé, x, 30
Allard, Louis, 30;
Les Epaves, 30
Allen-Taylor, Douglas, 159
All saints’ Day, 138, 151, 157, 164, 184
Alsatians, 25
Amelinckx, Frans, x, 69
American Folklore Society, 119
Americanization of Creoles, 11, 15, 47, 117, 118. See also Antiassimilationism
American Revolution, 45, 47, 195n25
Americans, 11, 12, 20, 74, 96, 97, 101, 128, 141, 149, 158, 164
Amistad Research Center, vii, 196n26
Anarcho-communism, 66, 67
Ancelet, Barry Jean. See Arceneaux, Jean
Anderson, Debra L., 189n3
Anglicization. See Americanization of Creoles
Anglo-Americans. See Americans
Annales school of history, 50
Antiassimilationism, 11, 19, 47, 171
Anti-Christian views, 78. See also Anti-clericalism
Anticlericalism, 47, 50, 53, 58, 81, 89, 143, 203n13
Antilles. See individual island names; West Indies
Anti-Semitism, 76, 77, 78, 162
Apollinaire, Guillaume, Alcools, 228n15
Arceneaux, Jean (Barry Jean Ancelet), xi, 171, 227n5
Architecture, 51, 101, 149, 159, 180
Armstrong Park, 10
Art pour l’art, L’, 57
Arvin, Newton, 100
(p.242) Assumption Parish, 32
Atlantic literature, 20–21
Aubert, Alvin, 226n4
Audubon Park, 46
Augier, Emile, 70, 76
Avenues and streets (New Orleans):
Bayou Road, 14;
Bourbon Street, 177;
Canal Street, 101, 116, 149, 181;
Coliseum Street, 159;
Elysian Fields, 162;
Governor Nicholls, 14;
Henry Clay Avenue, 225n26;
Milan Street, 156;
Oak Street, 170;
Pleasant Street, 223n11;
St. Charles Avenue, 186, 223n11;
St. Claude Avenue, 176. See also French Quarter
Avoyelles Parish, 145
Babbitt, Irving, 37
Bachelard, Gaston, 177
Bakhtin, M. M., 168
Balzac, Honoré de, 66;
La Peau de chagrin, 50;
Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes, 60
Bamboula, 95, 112, 126, 181
Baraka, Amiri (LeRoi Jones), 183
Barataria Bay, 145
Barbey d’Aurevilly, Jules, 204n5
Barde, Alexandre, 201–2n1;
Mademoiselle de Montblancard, 45
Barel, Léona. See Queyrouze, Léona
Barrès, Maurice, Colette Baudoche, 214n9
Barrett, Lawrence, 216n20
Barrie, James, 12
Barry, David, xi
Barthélemy, Auguste-Marseille, 43
Barthes, Roland, vii
Bartlett, Louise, 93
Basso, Hamilton, 20, 100, 155
Baudelaire, Charles, 39, 116, 117;
Les Fleurs du mal, 53
Bauer, Margaret, 162
Bayous, 25, 32;
Bonfouca, 206n9;
Lacombe, 32, 39;
Lafourche, 176, 225n26;
St. John, 4, 31, 43, 64;
Tèche, 105, 223n14
Beat movement, 172, 183
Beaumont, Joseph, 87
Becquer, Gus A., Las Hojas muertas, 208n2
Bedell, Jack, 171
Bell, Caryn Cossé, 82
Béranger, Pierre-Jean de, 43, 44, 81
Berquin-Duvallon, Pierre-Louis, 22;
Mélusine, 45
Berry, Wendell, 19, 20
Bhabha, Homi, 6
Bibliothèque Nationale, 131
Bienville, Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de, 4, 143, 144
Bienville, Nouan de, 64
Biguenet, John, 171
Bilingual tradition, 4, 186, 191n1. See also Languages
Biracial system, 125. See also Caste system; Plessy v. Ferguson
Bissette, Cyrille, 70
Black Arts Movement, 173, 183
Blanc, Louis, 48
Blassingame, John W., 23, 193n11
(p.243) BLKARTSOUTH, 173
Bloom, Harold, 128
Blue Room. See Roosevelt Hotel
Blues, 169–70, 177, 178, 180. See also Jazz
Bogalusa, Louisiana, 171
Boise, Jean, 81
Boise, Louis, 81
Bonapartists, 28
Bonnet Carré, Louisiana, 107
Bon sauvage. See Noble savage
Booksellers, modern (New Orleans):
Faulkner House Books, 170, 226n3;
Garden District Book Shop, 170;
Octavia Books, 170
Bordeaux, 71, 85, 116, 165, 186
Bordelais Gothic. See Romantic Gothic
Borders, James B., IV, 174, 198n15
Boré, Etienne de, 46
Borgne, Lake, 8, 101, 193n10
Boston, Massachusetts, 48, 49, 102, 134, 158
Bosworth, Sheila, 150, 167;
Almost Innocent, 165–66
Bosworth Field, Battle of, 77
Boucicault, Dion, The Octoroon, 75
Boudreaux, Beau, 171
Boudreaux, Jean, 182
Bouligny, Francisco, 223n14
Bouligny family, 156, 223n14
Bourbon restoration (1815), 8
Bourbon rule in Louisiana government, 144
Bourget, Paul, 220n21
Bourque, Darrell, xi, 171, 190n9, 227n6
Bousquet, Joë, 201n24
Bradford, Mel, 160
Brainard (quoted by Adrien Rouquette), 33
Brannan, William Penn, 20
Bras-Coupé, 21, 65, 98, 100, 211–12n11
Breaux manuscript, 190n8
Brer Rabbit, 119
Bres, Rose Falls (Rosetta C. Falls), 215n17
Brésil, Jules, 77
Bretonne, Charles de la. See Rouquigny, Jacques de
Brevelle. See Isle Brevelle, L’
Brieux, Eugène, 25
British Psychic Society, 204n7
Brittany, 119
Brontë, Charlotte, 123, 133, 148
“Bronze John.” See Yellow fever
Brooks, Cleanth, 151
Brosman, Catharine Savage, 171
Brown, Charles Brockden, 33
Brown, John, 89
Brown, William Wells, 206n5
Browning, Robert, 215n20
Bruce, Clint, 207–8n2
Bryan, Violet Harrington, 133
Bryant, William Cullen, 33
Buchuwa, Louisiana, 32
Burke, James Lee, x
Burns, Robert, 89
Butler, Benjamin, 12, 15, 42, 131, 166
Buys, William de, 211n11
Byrne, Bobby, 163
Byron, George Gordon, Lord, 43
Cabeza de Vaca, Álvar Núñez, 4
Cabildo. See French Quarter
Cable, George Washington, ix, 5, 20, 27, 31, 47, 56, 64, 70, 81, 93–100, 101, 102, 105, 110, 112, 120, 122, 129, 132, 156, 164, 214n10, 223n13.
Works: “Le Café des exilés,” 10;
“The Freedman’s Case in Equity,” 94, 124;
The Grandissimes, 21, 39, 53, 65, 94, 96–99, 100, 112, (p.244) 155, 157, 163, 212n19;
“The Haunted House in Royal Street,” 15, 96, 230n33;
“Jean-ah Poquelin,” 201n24;
“Madame Délicieuse,” 11;
Madame Delphine, 52, 95, 140;
The Negro Question, 94;
Old Creole Days, 93–94, 95–96;
Strange True Stories of Louisiana, 95, 105;
“’Tite Poulette,” 95, 140
Caddo Parish, 160
Caen, Herbert, 172
Caillou, André, 89
Cajun French. See Languages
Cajun literature, xi, 106
Cajuns, x–xi, 7, 106, 124, 152, 160, 161, 162, 182, 184, 224n20
Cambridge History of American Literature, 58, 60
Camus, Albert, La Chute, 155
Canadian literature, 19, 198–99n1
Canadians in Louisiana, 4, 7, 47, 106
Canary Islanders. See Isleños
Cane River, 62, 122, 124, 125, 153, 164, 217n2
Canonge, Louis-Placide, 23, 197–98n13;
Le Comte de Carmagnola, 23;
France et Espagne, 45
Capuchins, 4, 143
Caribbean Sea, 113
Carmer, Carl, French Town, 227n6
Carnival, 59, 147, 152, 155, 162, 166, 176, 181. See also Clubs; Masking and masked balls
Carondelet, Baron François de, 194n15
Carondolet Canal, 84, 209n6
Carpe diem, theme of, 209n12
Carpetbaggers, 11, 12, 51, 141–42
Carver, Ada Jack, 153
Cassette girls. see Filles à la cassette
Castellanos, Henry C., 211n11
Caste system, 10, 15, 70, 73, 75, 95, 97, 98, 102, 104, 125, 136, 153, 160, 161, 162, 163–64, 165–66
Castra, Hyppolyte, 87
Cather, Willa, 122, 123
Catlin, George, 36
Caulfeild, Ruby Van Allen, ix, 189n4
Celibacy, clerical, 50, 53–54, 82
Céline, Louis-Ferdinand, Voyage au bout de la nuit, 60
Cenelles, Les, 80–85, 86, 88, 89, 170
Center for Louisiana Studies, x
Chahta-Ima. See Rouquette, Adrien
Champlain, Lake, 191n1
Chapels, 32
Charcot, Jean-Martin, 48
Charente, La, 63
Charity Hospital, 176
Charles IX, 89
Chase, William M., ix
Chateaubriand, François-René de, 19, 31, 32, 33, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 48, 54, 55, 65, 67, 69, 100, 116, 200n16.
Works: Atala, 29, 31, 49;
René, 37, 48, 85
Chaudenson, Robert, 4, 5
Chef Menteur. See Mingolabee
Chênière Caminada, 25, 127, 155, 215n17
Cheramie, David, xi
Chesnutt, Charles W., Paul Marchand, F.M.C., 225–26n32
Chessman, Caryl, 173
Chevilles, 41
Choate, Joseph, 79
Choctaws. See Indians
Cholera, 12
Chopin, Kate, ix, 5, 62, 70, 102, 110, 121–30, 132, 133, 139, 146, 153, 168;
life (p.245) and background, 121–22.
Works: At Fault, 124–25, 126, 128;
“Athénaïse,” 127, 129, 130;
The Awakening, 55, 121, 128–30;
Bayou Folk, 124, 125–27;
“La Belle Zoraïde,” 126;
“Désirée’s Baby,” 75, 123, 126–27, 141, 217n1;
“Her Letters,” 218n14;
“In and Out of Old Natchitoches,” 126;
“In Sabine,” 218n11;
A Night in Acadie, 127–28;
“The Storm,” 218n12
Chopin, Oscar, 122
Choppin, Jules, 21
Christ. See Jesus Christ
Christian, Marcus, 205n12
Christian themes:
dialectic of felix culpa, 63;
eschatology, 62, 113
Churches, 149, 183;
Notre-Dame de Bon Secours, 150;
St. Ann’s, 24;
St. Augustine, 24;
St. Peter Claver, 24;
St. Raymond and St. Leo the Great, 179. See also St. Louis Cathedral
Cincinnati, Ohio, 101, 140
City Park, 30
Civilization, 178
Civil rights movement, 169
Claiborne, William Charles, 10, 96
Clark, Emily, 194n14, 194n16
Classicism and classical literature, 18, 43, 77, 81, 113
Classism and class inequality, 108, 138. See also Caste system
Claudel, Calvin, 81
Cliché, 151;
defined, 223n9;
Renaissance cliché, 88
Clinton, William J., 160
Cloutierville, Louisiana, 122
Clubs and krewes:
Athénée Louisianais, 25, 47, 67, 106, 115, 116, 119;
Boston Club, 150, 152;
Causeries du lundi, 16;
Francs Amis, 24;
Freedmen’s Aid Association, 86;
Historical Club, 98;
Krewe of Comus, 145, 147, 166;
krewes, 150, 162;
Lawn Tennis Club, 150, 225n26;
Pickwick Club, 150, 166;
Quarante Club, 131, 144, 145;
Société d’Economie, 24;
Société des Artisans, 24, 70, 209n10;
Société du Cordon Bleu, 24;
L’Union française, 67
Clytemnestra, 113
Colleges. See Schools; Universities
Code Noir, 9–10, 59, 76, 78, 94, 140
Code of Honor. See Duels
Codependency, 167
Coincidence, 49, 50, 53, 106
Coliseum Square, 131
Collens, T. Wharton, The Martyr Patriots, 45
Colonialism and colonial attitudes, 10–11, 114, 124–25, 178
Colonial literature, 18
Columbus, Christopher, 178
Commune, Paris (1871), 50
Compagnie des Indes, 4, 204n10
Compagnie d’Occident, 4
(p.246) Compère Lapin. See Brer Rabbit
Condé, Maryse, 69
Confederacy, 46, 47, 115, 131
Confederate army, 14, 63, 93, 94, 144, 151, 196n28
Congo, Luis, 177
Congo Square, 10, 126
Congress, United States, 10, 11
Conrad, Joseph, The Heart of Darkness, 215n17
Conspiracy of 1768, 8, 63–64
Constant, Benjamin, 69
Contemporary Arts Center, 174
Cooley, Peter, 171
Cooper, James Fenimore, 33, 36;
The Last of the Mohicans, 36
Corday, Charlotte, 47
Cordon Bleu. See Clubs and krewes
Corneille, Pierre, 119, 207n14
Cornstalk fences, 101
Correction girls, 6, 97
Corrington, John William, x, 160, 171, 223n16
Corrington, Joyce, x
Corso, Gregory, 172
Côte des Allemands. See German Coast
Council for the Development of French in Louisiana (CODOFIL), x, 216n22
Courcelle, Achille, 13
Couvent, Justine (Madame Bernard), 23, 79, 208n3
Cowan, James L., xi, 88
Crane, Hart, 155, 173
Crane, Stephen, 23
Crawford, Joan, Humoresque, 218n12
Creole:
definitions and use, 4–6, 16;
etymology, 4
Creoles, white, 5, 6, 10–11, 12–13, 16, 20, 22, 27, 28, 69, 94, 96–98, 118, 129, 132, 139–40, 147, 149, 150, 151, 154, 156–58, 159, 160, 162, 163, 164, 165–66, 167;
as Other, 96;
ties to France, 8, 12–13, 28, 157. see also Creole; White supremacism
Creoles of Color (modern), x, 6, 15, 16, 149, 153–54, 160, 164, 185, 186;
literary style, 69;
prose writers, 78–79;
theme of whiteness and blackness, 106, 150, 154, 161, 165, 186. See also Blues; Free People of Color; Jazz
Créolité, viii, 149, 175
Crime novels, x
Critical theory, viii
Croats, 8
Croesus, 49
Crozat, Antoine, 4
Cuba, 6, 8, 42, 79, 111
Culture, definition, 191–92n3
Cummings, E. E.:
Tulips and Chimneys, 228n15
Dagoes. See Italians
d’Agoult, Marie, 123
Dalcour, Pierre, 81, 82–83
Dance, 10, 93, 95, 97, 194n18. See also Bamboula; Congo Square
Dances with Wolves, 199n3
Daniels, Kate, 150
Daudet, Alphonse, 67, 220n12
Dauphin, Bernard Désormes, 81
David, Jacques-Louis, 53
Davis, Mollie Moore, 215n12
Day of the Dead. See All Saints’ Day
Degas, Edgar, 208n2
(p.247) Déjacque, Joseph, 66–67.
Works: L’Humanisphère, 67;
Les Lazaréennes, 67
de la Houssaye, Louis Alexandre Le Pelletier, 104–5
de la Houssaye, Sidonie, 27, 95, 104–13, 131, 146;
life and career, 104–6.
Works: Contes d’une grand-mère louisianaise, 106–7;
Pouponne et Balthazar, 106;
Quadroon novels, 107–13
Delany, Martin R., Blake, or the Huts of America; A Tale of the Mississippi Valley, the Southern United States, and Cuba, 59
Delaup, François, 24
Delavigne, Casimir, 43
Deléry, Charles-Chauvin-Boisclair, 42, 201n17;
L’Ecole du peuple, 42
Demarest, Donald, vii, 11, 94, 129, 200n10, 214n7, 223n13, 224n20;
background, 156;
Fabulous Ancestor, 155–58, 166, 167
Dent, Thomas C., 170, 173–74, 205n12
Depression, economic, 12
Depression, mental, 218n12
de Pues, Freddy, xi
Desbordes-Valmore, Marceline, 106
Desbrosses, Nelson, 81
Desdunes, P. A., 207n17, 208n2
Desdunes, Rodolphe-Lucien, 79;
Nos hommes et notre histoire, viii, 22, 79
Désert. See Wilderness
de Soto, Hernando de, 4
Dessommes, Edward, 115, 203n14
Dessommes, George Washington, 85, 115–19, 203n14.
Works: Tante Cydette, 117–19;
Vendanges, 116–17
Diane de Poitiers, 87
Diaspora, black, 21
Diaspora, Creole, 47, 71, 85–86, 174, 182, 183, 185
Dictionary of Literary Biography, vii
Diderot, Denis, La Religieuse, 54
Donaldsonville, 203n15
Dostie, A. P., 89, 210n13
Double standard, 66
Doucet, John, 171
Dove, Rita, 175
Dreyfus Affair, 78
Dryden, John, 199n3
Dublin, 101
Dubois, Sylvie, 6
Du Bois, W. E. B., 79
Duclos, Louis, 24
Dueling grounds, 64
Duels, 51, 64, 67, 94, 97, 98, 101, 164, 165
Dufour, Charles L., 210n13
Dugué, Charles-Oscar, 19, 42;
Essais poétiques, 42, 200n14
Duhart, Adolphe, 73, 87, 206n10.
Works: Lélia, ou la victime du préjugé, 73;
“Simple Histoire,” 73, 74;
“Trois amours,” 73–74
Dumas, Alexandre, père, 45, 48, 49, 53, 54, 70, 71, 75, 83, 105.
Works: Le Comte de Monte Cristo, 111;
Dartagnan, 48
Dumont de Montigny, Jean-François-Benjamin:
“Poème en vers, touchant l’éstablissement de la Province de la Louisiane,” 25
Dunbar-Nelson, Alice, 78–79;
The Goodness of St. Rocque, 78–79
Duperron, Jean, 25
du Quesnay, Adolphe, 102, 113–15, 145:
“Un Eté à la Grand’Isle,” 114–15
duQuesnay, Maurice, vii, xii, 156
Dykes, Darrin, 218n12
(p.248) Eagleton, Terry, viii
Earthquake, 57, 62
Elfenbein, Anna Shannon, 134
Eliot, George, 123, 133
Eliot, T. S.:
“Hamlet and His Problems,” 129;
“Notes Toward the Definition of Culture,” 192n3
Elizabethan drama, 77. See also Shakespeare, William
Ellison, Ralph, 169
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 123
Encyclopedia Britannica, 94
England. See Great Britain
Enlightenment, 18, 21, 35, 37, 98
Epstein, Joseph, 219n6
Ethnicity, 3, 6, 126, 147, 149, 181, 190n1. See also individual group names; Caste system; Intermarriage; Race; Racial prejudice and oppression
Ethnic speech. See Languages
Evershed, Emilie Poullant Gelbois, Eglantine ou le secret, 45
Executioner, 64, 204–5n10
Exile and expatriation, theme of, 24, 86, 106, 113, 178, 198n15. See also Diaspora: Creole
Fabre, Michel, 209n7
Faget, Jean-Charles, 201n22
Fanon, Frantz, 108
Farragut, David, 12
Fatality, as theme, 86, 113
Faubourgs. See Neighborhoods
Faubourg Tremé: The Untold Story of Black New Orleans, 14, 226n4
Faulkner, William, 20, 95, 100, 122, 154, 161, 224n24.
Works: Absalom, Absalom!, 110, 112, 154, 161;
Mosquitoes, 154;
The Wild Palms, 154
Favorite, Malaika, 171
Federal troops, 14, 42, 51, 140, 141, 151. See also Native Guards; Occupation, federal
Federal Writers’ Project, 153
Feibleman, James K., 155, 159
Feminine condition. See Women’s situation
Feminism:
in creative works, 55–56, 104, 120, 121, 133;
in criticism, viii, 108, 110, 121, 124, 127, 128–30, 167
Feminist criticism. See Feminism
Feminization of literature, 160
Ferney, France, 49
Fertel, Rien, 197n12
Filles à la cassette, 6, 97
Fires in New Orleans, 26
First Backyard Poetry Theater, 170
First Empire, 77
Flaubert, Gustave, 102, 123.
Works: Madame Bovary, 75, 123;
Salammbô, 123
Flora Levy Series, x
Florida Parishes, 7
F. M. S., “Souvenirs de Bonfouca,” 72, 73
Foley, Althea, 101
Folklore, xi, 81, 101, 119, 190n4, 216n25
Fontane, Theodore, 123
Food and cooking, 27, 79, 101, 135, 149, 159, 179, 180, 181, 184
Forest. See Wilderness
Fortier, Alcée, 5, 29, 79, 119
Fortier, Edward J., viii, 216n24
Fortier, Florent, 119
Fortier, Louise Augustin, 115
Fort Rosalie, 143, 192n8
Foscue (fermier-général in France), 202n8
Foundlings and orphans, 38, 103, 107, 138
France, Anatole, 102;
Thaïs, 33
(p.249) Francis, W. T., 32
François I, 87
Franco-Prussian War, 8, 12, 50, 67, 76, 115, 139
Frankfort School. See Marxism and Marxist analysis
Franklin, Louisiana, 104
Freeman, John, 227n11
Freemasonry and Freemasons, 58, 59, 61, 89, 204n7
Free People of Color (19th century) (Creoles of Color), viii, x, 5–6, 9–10, 13–16, 20, 23–24, 27, 46, 68–70, 79, 94, 95, 96, 98, 125, 126, 138, 153, 160, 163–65, 168, 169, 176, 182, 185;
cultural achievements and literacy, 20, 23–24, 68–69, 80;
in the Battle of New Orleans, 71, 87, 195n25;
in and after the Civil War, 14–15, 196n28;
legal status, 9–10, 15, 86, 88;
literary style, 69;
music, 196n27;
neighborhoods, 14, 176;
as Other, 13;
poets, 80–92;
population numbers, 10, 195n25;
professions and trades, 14, 179;
prose writers, 70–79;
racial attitudes, 13, 15, 137;
relationships with non-mixedrace blacks, 72–73, 110;
speech, 13;
ties to France, 13, 15, 20, 71, 112;
valorization of whiteness, 13, 138–39, 154, 161, 165;
wealth, 13;
women and writing, 68;
Free Southern Theater, 170, 173, 174
French Opera House. See Theaters
French Quarter (Vieux Carré), 10, 12, 26–27, 70, 109, 113, 114, 117, 139, 149, 150, 153, 154, 164, 167, 170, 181, 183, 185;
Beauregard House, 152;
Cabildo, 26;
Chartres Street, 139;
Decatur Street, 185;
Esplanade Avenue, 145;
French Market, 27, 183;
Jackson Square (Place d’Armes), 26, 116–17, 145, 152;
Presbytère, 26–27;
Rampart Street, 14, 72, 137, 158, 173;
Royal Street, 31, 139, 185;
Ursulines Convent, 26. See also St. Louis Cathedral; Theaters
French settlers in Louisiana, 4, 6–7;
influence, 8–9, 28
Frénière, Nicolas-Chauvin de la, 67
Freudianism, 108
Friedmann, Patty, 150
Fruman, Norman, viii
Fuller, Margaret, 123
Fuselier de la Claire, Agricole, 211n11
Gaines, Ernest J., 160–62, 220n14.
Works: The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman, 108, 161;
Catherine Cormier, 161–62
Galileo, 90, 91
Gallier, James, 166
Gálvez, Bernardo de, 29, 186
García Lorca, Federico, 173
Garreau, Louis-Armand, 8–9, 63–66.
Works: “Bras-coupé,” 21, 65;
“Une Créole,” 66;
“L’idiote,” 66;
“Un Jour de noces,” 66;
Louisiana, 45, 63;
“Naïda,” 65–66;
“Un Nègre marron,” 64–65
Gascons, 141, 146
Gautier, Théophile, 75, 102, 117
Gayarré, Charles, viii, 5, 22, 31, 45–46, 58, 64, 94, 101, 131, 132, 143, 197n12, 202n2, 214n10.
Works: Aubert Dubayet, 46–47;
Fernando de Lemos, 46
Gehman, Mary, 14
(p.250) Gens de couleur libres. See Free People of Color
Gereighty, Andrea, 170
German, Norman, 222n7
German Coast, 8, 55, 171;
uprising, 10, 13
Germans, 8, 149
Gers (France), 31
Gex-Breaux, Quo Vadis, 173, 194n18, 226n4
Gide, André:
Les Faux-Monnayeurs, 109;
L’Immoraliste, 215n17
Gilbert, Sandra, 121, 129
Gilchrist, Ellen, 150, 151, 162
Gildea, Robert, 24
Gilder, Richard Watson, 132
Ginsburg, Allen, 172
Glasgow, Ellen, 100
Gobineau, Arthur, comte de, 214n9
Georgia (state), 131, 165
Golden Age drama, 77
Gombo (speech). See Languages
Goncourt, Edmond and Jules, 75
Good, Charles Hamlin, 80
Gospel music, 180
Gospels, 89, 118. See also Christianity
Gottschalk, Louis-Moreau, 9, 22, 200n12
Gracerie, Charles de, Les Mystères des bords du Mississippi, 45
Grand Isle, 25, 40, 114, 127, 129, 230n30
Grand Tour, 28
Grau, Shirley Ann, vii, 17, 100, 158–60, 223n11.
Works: The Black Prince and Other Stories, 224n20;
The Hard Blue Sky, 224n20;
The House on Coliseum Street, 159;
The Keepers of the House, 112, 159
Great Britain, 7, 101, 146, 198–99n1
Greece, 48–49
Grenoble, 104
Grima, Edgar, 21
Grue, Lee Meitzen, 170, 185–86
Guadeloupe, West Indies, 57, 59, 60, 61, 62, 71
Guinea, 64
Gulf Coast, 4, 147, 159, 196n28, 224n20
Gulf of Mexico, 4, 25, 102, 113, 114, 115, 129, 130
Guthrie, James Birney, 105
Hachard de Saint-Stanislas, Sister Madeleine, 20
Haiti and Haitians, 6, 10, 71, 73, 80, 82, 85, 165. See also St.-Domingue
Halévy, Fromental, La Juive, 76
Hamel, Réginald, x, 47, 54, 203n14
Hangman. See Executioner
Harper, Frances E. W., Minnie’s Sacrifice, 109
Harris, Joel Chandler, 25, 119, 146, 147, 212n14, 221n23
Harte, Bret, 25
Hartford, Connecticut, 132
Hayden, Robert, 182
Hearn, Lafcadio, 5, 28, 30, 37, 94, 101–3, 114, 119, 120, 130, 132, 145, 182, 210n2.
Works: Chita, 102–3;
Creole Sketches, 101;
Ghombo Zhèbes, 101, 119, 212n19
Hellman, Lillian, 222n2
Hennessey, David, 120
Henri (poet), 90–92
Henry, Cammie Garrett, 153
Henry, O., 139, 150
Heredity, 55, 102, 105, 130
Hero, Danella P., 186
Heyward, DuBose, 221n24
Hippocrates, 44
Historical novel, 19, 50, 60, 63–64, 96
(p.251) Hobson, Geary, 192n8
Holbrook, Alva, 220n20
Holditch, Kenneth, 162
Home Guards, 14
Homer, 71
Hommel, Christian, x
Hoodoo, 97, 110, 161, 176, 177, 181
Horvath, Barbara M., 6
House, as metaphor, 157, 158, 159, 176, 177
Houssaye, Sidonie de la. See de la Houssaye, Sidonie
Houzeau, Jean-Charles, 24–25
Howells, William Dean, 132;
“A Modern Instance,” 124
Hudson, Julien, 14
Hughes, Langston, 153, 169, 173
Hugo, Victor, 19, 24, 34, 39, 43, 45, 49, 53, 63, 71, 75, 77, 81, 82, 102, 113, 116, 172, 204n7.
Works: Bug-Jargal, 59;
Les Burgraves, 75;
“Ce que dit la Bouche d’ombre,” 172;
Le Dernier Jour d’un condamné, 69;
Les Misérables, 62, 69, 204n5
Huguenots, 4, 97, 144. See also Protestants and Protestantism
Hurricanes and storms, 25–26, 40–42, 51, 58, 72, 86, 98, 102, 113, 114, 116, 117, 143, 155, 185, 211n6, 224n20. See also Katrina
Hurston, Zora Neale, 221n24
Iberia Parish, 105, 211n11
Iberville, Pierre Le Moyne d’, 4, 144, 220n18
Identity literature (group-oriented), 17, 159
Illegitimacy, 72, 73, 85
Illusion:
fictional, 109;
theme of, 53, 117, 123
Imaginaire, 25–26
Immigrants and immigration, 8, 10, 35, 57, 144
Incest, theme of, 38, 47, 49, 74, 110, 201n17, 215n12
Indians, 7, 29, 30, 32, 37, 42, 52, 97, 106, 125, 143, 160, 192n8, 199n3;
Acolapissa, 212n14;
Attakapas, 30;
Choctaws, 29, 31, 32, 38, 39, 42, 55, 63, 176;
Houmas, 30;
Hurons, 199n3;
of mixed race, 97, 125, 146, 193n8;
Natchez, 143, 182, 192n8;
Seminoles, 66;
Tchoupitoulas, 98. See also Mardi Gras Indians
Ingraham, Joseph Holt, 201n17, 214n10
Injustice, theme of, 59, 68, 94, 96, 98. See also Racial prejudice and oppression; Slavery and slaves
Insanity, 50, 52–54, 78, 87, 111, 126, 155, 177. See also Pathological behavior
Institut catholique des orphelins indigents. See Schools
Intermarriage, 7, 72, 94, 95, 161, 164–65, 194n16. See also Miscegenation; Mixed-race liaisons
International, The, 58
Intertextuality, 22
Irish, 8, 14, 101, 121, 122, 149, 152, 162, 163, 166, 193n12
Irving, Washington, 33
Isle Brevelle, L’, 15, 23, 81, 153, 217n2. See also Cane River
Isle dernière, L’, 25, 40–42, 102, 155
Isle of Orleans, 193n10
Isleños, 8
(p.252) Italians, 8, 102, 138, 141, 146, 147, 149, 152, 158, 163, 193n12
Italy, 77;
Bologna, 77, 78;
Palermo, 53;
Sicily, 52, 54;
Tuscany, 53
Jackson, Andrew, 25, 46, 71
Jackson, Helen Hunt, Ramona, 36
Jackson asylum (Louisiana Insane Asylum), 176, 177
Jackson Square. See French Quarter
Jamaica, 57, 113
Jambon, Kirby, xi, 190n9
James, Henry, Daisy Miller, 118
James, William, 204n7
Janin, Jules, 75
Japan, 101, 120
Jauss, Hans Robert, 108, 168
Jazz, 14, 150, 169–70, 172, 173, 180, 183, 185, 226nn34
Jazz and Heritage Foundation, New Orleans, 173
Jazz musicians:
Armstrong, Louis (“Satchmo”), 179, 181, 183;
Bolden, Charles Joseph (“Buddy”/“King”), 226n3;
Byrd, Charlie, 173;
Davis, Miles, 173, 183;
Doe, Ernie K, 186;
Domino, Antoine Dominique (“Fats”), 186;
Ellington, Edward Kennedy (“Duke”), 183;
Floyd, “King,” 180;
Gillespie, John Birks (“Dizzy”), 173;
Marsalis, Ellis, and family, 183;
Neville, Aaron, 183;
Parker, Charlie, 173, 183;
Ruffin, Kermit, 186;
Thomas, Irma, 180;
Toussaint, Allen, 180;
Washington, Walter (“Wolfman”), 186
Jefferson, Thomas, 10
Jefferson Parish, 42, 47
Jesuits, 54
Jesus Christ, 59, 61, 82, 88, 89, 90, 114, 129
Jews, 9, 46, 76, 77–78, 111, 172
Jim Crow laws, 181, 182, 184
Joan of Arc, 90
John, Elton, 163
John, Madame, 95, 182
Jones, Anne Goodwyn, 136
Joseph, Givonna, 196n27
Juana, Sor (of Lima), 177
Jullien, Adolphe, viii
July Revolution. See Revolution of 1830
Kadish, Doris Y., 10
Kail, Andrée, 216n23
Kane, Harnett, 155, 157, 166
Kane, Julie, ix, 170, 171
Katrina (hurricane), 171, 178, 179, 182, 183, 185, 211n6, 227n6, 230nn3031
Kaufman, Bob, 172–73, 175, 176, 179, 228n15;
Solitudes Crowded with Loneliness, 172
Kein, Sybil (Consuela Marie Provost née Moore), 164, 165, 171, 181–83.
Works: An American South, 182–83;
“Siblings: The Mulatto Slave,” 165
Kerchief. See Tignon
Kerlérec, Louis Billouart, Chevalier de, 205n10
Kerouac, Jack, 172
Keyes, Frances Parkinson, 151–52, 155, 156;
Dinner at Antoine’s, 152, 166
King, Grace, 5, 11, 23, 28, 31, 95, 98, 110, 122, 123, 125, 131–44, 145, 146, 157, 204n10, 226n3;
attitudes towards and portrayal of blacks, 132, 133, 134, 138;
attitudes toward and portrayal of women, 133, 136;
attitudes toward the South, 137;
use of language, 132.
Works: Balcony Stories, 139–41;
“Bayou l’Ombre,” 136–37, 141;
“Bonne Maman,” 137–38;
“A Crippled Hope,” (p.253) 140;
La Dame de Sainte Hermine, 143;
“La Grande Demoiselle,” 140;
“Grandmama,” 140;
“Heroines of Novels,” 133;
“In the French Quarter. 1870,” 139;
“The Little Convent Girl,” 140–41;
“Madrilène,” 138–39, 157;
“Monsieur Motte” (story and novella), 77, 132, 133, 134, 135–36, 142;
The Pleasant Ways of St. Médard, 131, 141–43;
Tales of a Time and Place, 136–39
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 184
Knopf (publishers), 166
“Know-Nothing” Party, 35
Komunyakaa, Yusef, 171, 226n4
Krewes (Carnival clubs). See Clubs and krewes
La Bretonne, Charles de. See Rouquigny, Jacques de
Lacroix, Victor, 89
Lafayette, Louisiana, 184
Lafitte, Jean, 67, 144
La Frénière, Nicolas-Chauvin de. See Frénière, Nicolas-Chauvin de la
Lakanal, Joseph, 22, 46
Lakes. See individual names
Lalaurie, Marie Delphine (Madame), 96, 185, 230n33
Lamartine, Alphonse de, 19, 30, 33, 43, 80, 81, 82, 84, 116.
Works: “L’Isolement,” 83;
“Le Lac,” 86;
Toussaint-Louverture, 87
Lambert, P.-A., 44
Lammenais, Félicité-Robert de, 31
Lamotte, Louisa R., 205n1
Landes, Les, 66
Landscapes, 25, 151, 155. See also Mississippi River; Swamps; Wilderness
Lane, Pinkie Gordon, 171, 226n4, 227n6
Languages, 21, 126;
African languages and terms, 175, 176, 178;
Cajun (Acadian) French, xi, 7, 106, 119, 126, 171, 184, 224n20, 227n5;
colonial French, 5;
dialect, defined, 221n24;
elevated style, 69;
English, crude, 96, 97, 100, 125, 221nn2324;
French, crude, 125;
French as dominant spoken or literary language, 12, 14, 93, 150, 153;
Gombo or “Creole” (black creole patois), 5, 21, 31, 37, 47, 50, 54, 87, 96, 97, 100, 101, 102, 103, 110, 120, 126, 160, 161, 164, 171, 172, 178, 179, 182, 190n8, 208n4;
Haitian Creole, 182;
laws on, 12, 25, 195n22;
levels of speech, 69;
literary French used to record popular speech, 38, 60, 64;
quasi-phonetic spellings, 60, 96, 125, 132, 146, 152, 183, 221n24;
Sicilian patois, 138, 146;
Spanish, 8, 102, 184;
West Indian, 178
Lanusse, Armand, 15, 23, 80, 82, 83, 87, 194n14, 208n3;
“Un Mariage de conscience,” 72, 82
Lanusse, Numa, 80
Larsen, Nella, 221n24
La Salle, Robert Cavelier de, 4, 119
Lasseigne, Charles, 107
Last Island. See Isle dernière, L’
Latil, Alexandre, 43, 58, 87;
Les Ephémères, 43–44
Latin America, 11
“Latin” character and culture, 15, 20, 36, 46, 47, 55, 96, 99, 118, 153, 181
Latortue, Régine, 82
Laveau, Marie, 100, 161, 181, 183, 186
Law, John, 4, 9
Lawrence, D. H., Lady Chatterley’s Lover, 129
Laws in Louisiana, 4, 46, 72, 88, 105;
law of 1830, on seditious speech, 69, 82;
Leblanc, Eugène, 200n12
Le Blanc de Villeneufve, Paul-Louis, 29;
La Fête du petit blé, 29–30
Lebreton, Dagmar Renshaw, 199n6
Le Clézio, J. M. G., 199n3
Leconte de Lisle, Charles-René, 39
Legion of Honor, 70
“Lélia D.” See Duhart, Adolphe
Lemann, Nancy, 150;
Lives of the Saints, 166–67
Le Page du Pratz, Antoine-Simon, 5, 19, 29, 200n16
Lépouzé, Constant, 83
Leprosy, 43, 201n24
Leroy, Fabrice, 65
Liberty Place, Battle of, 12
Lincoln, Abraham, 89, 90, 208n3
Liotau, Mirtil-Ferdinand, 81, 82, 83–84
Literacy:
in louisiana, 23, 24;
Literature in Louisiana:
identification, origin, and distinctiveness, 17–22, 198–99n1;
milieu, 22–25
Littérature engagée, 69
Local color, 19, 39, 88, 114, 116, 122, 159, 180, 185
London, 75
Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 100
Lorrain, Claude, 151
Loti, Pierre, 102
Louisiana:
climate and weather, 19, 101, 114, 117, 118, 159, 184;
constitution, 9, 92;
after 1865, 11;
flora and fauna of bayous, 114;
history, 3–15;
name, 4;
population figures, 10;
population makeup, 3, 6–9;
Louisiana Lottery, 144
Louisiana Purchase, 4, 10–11, 96, 122
Louisiana Research Collection, vii, 193n12, 200n7, 201n21, 219n2, 221n22
Louis-Napoleon. See Napoleon III
Louis-Philippe, 35, 38, 46
Louis XV, 7
Louis XVI, 22
Louvre, 179
Louÿs, Pierre, La Femme et le pantin, 215n17
Love, as theme, 32, 38, 42, 44, 51, 53, 54, 56, 61, 62, 64, 70, 76, 81–82, 86, 184
Lowe, John, 151
Loyal retainer figures, 54, 125, 137, 143, 147–48, 220n16, 220–21n22
Lucifer and demons, 35, 36
Lussan, Auguste, 202n1;
Les Martyrs de la Louisiane, 45
Lycées. See Schools
McAlpin, Robert, 125
Mccullars, Carson, 160
Mcdonogh, John, 182
McKenna, Beverly Stanton, 198n15
McKenna, Dwight, 198n15
Macpherson, James (Ossian), 33
Madame John’s Legacy, 95, 182–83
Maddox, Everette, 170
Maistre, Joseph de, 31
Major, Clarence, 180
Malays, 8
(p.255) Mal du siècle, 30
Malherbe, François de, 48;
“Consolation à Monsieur du Périer,” 209n12
Mallarmé, Stéphane, 39;
“Don du poème,” 25
Manchac River, 193n10
Mandeville, Louisiana, 32, 44, 116, 140
Mansion, Lucien (Lolo), 25, 198n18
Mantua, Pennsylvania, 31
Maple Leaf Bar, 170
Marat, Jean-Paul, 47
Marciacq, J. L., 72, 203n15
Mardi Gras. See Carnival
Mardi Gras Indians, 7, 176
Margot, Queen (Marguerite de Valois), 87
“Marie” (anonymous), 72, 75, 113
Marigny, Faubourg. See Neighborhoods
Marinoni, Ulisse, 151, 157
Marksville, Louisiana, 145
Marriage, theme of, 69, 70, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76. See also Intermarriage; Mixed-race liaisons
“Marseillaise, La,” 13, 89
Marseillaise noire, La, 87–92
Marshall, Bill, 21
Martial, 30
Martin, François-Xavier, 202n2
Martineau, Harriet, 215n13
Martinique, West Indies, 63, 70, 101, 113, 172
Marx, Karl, 66
Marxism and Marxist criticism, 59, 60, 63, 65, 66, 119, 134
Masking and masked ball, 55–56, 158, 166
Matas, Rodolpho, 102
Matherne, Beverly, 171, 227n6
Maugham, Somerset, Of Human Bondage, 76
Maupassant, Guy de, 102, 123, 125, 130, 132, 139
Maurepas, Lake, 145, 193n10
Mauriac, François, 66
Mechanics Institute uprising, 89, 92
Merchant Marine, 172
Mercier, Adèle, 52
Mercier, Alfred, 22, 47–55, 56, 74, 81, 82, 101, 116, 150, 171;
background and life, 47–48.
Works: “L’Artiste amoureux,” 53;
L’Aventure de Johnelle, 54–55;
Du panlatinisme, 202n4;
“1878,” 47;
La Fille du prêtre, 47, 50, 82;
Fortunia, 47;
Le Fou de Palerme, 52–53;
L’Habitation Saint-Ybars, 15, 21, 26, 27, 50–52, 107, 203n10;
Hénoch Jédésias, 49–50;
Lidia, 53–54, 116;
La Rose de Smyrne et l’Ermite du Niagara, 48–49
Mercier, Armand, 47, 86
Mercier, Armantine, 52
Mercier, Jean-Baptiste, 47
Mérimée, Prosper, “Tamango,” 62
Métoyer, Claude, 222n7
Métoyer family, 23, 222n7
Mexico, 73, 113
Michaelides, Chris, x, 68, 69, 74
Michigan, University of, at Flint, 182
Middleton, David, 171
Milton, John, Paradise Lost, 35
Mingo (name), 212n14
Mingolabee (Chef Menteur), 99, 212n14
Miscegenation, 52, 94, 95, 101, 110, 122–23, 126–27, 154, 166. See also Intermarriage; Mixed-race liaisons
Mississippi (state), 154, 155
Mississippi coast. See Gulf Coast
(p.256) Mississippi River, 4, 7, 25, 27, 33, 39–40, 50, 54, 151, 152, 185, 193n10
Mississippi Valley, 26
Mistaken or hidden identity, 47, 55, 61–62, 71, 73, 75, 78, 103, 111, 147
Mixed-race liaisons, 9, 51–52, 62, 73, 74, 94, 110, 161. See also Free People of Color; Intermarriage; Miscegenation; Quadroons
Mobile, Alabama, 57, 62
Mockingbird, 30, 32
Mocquard, Jean-François, 77
Modern Language Association, 119
Molière, 42, 99, 119
Monarchists, 28
Montaigne, Michel de, 29, 199n3
Montherlant, Henry de, La Reine morte, 207n14
Montpellier, France, 174
Moore, Charles, 182
Moore, Thomas, 33
Morel, Amadeo, 40, 201n21;
Récit sur l’Ouragan de la Dernière Ile, 40–42
Mormons, 35
Morphy, Paul, 152
Morrison, Toni, 175;
The Bluest Eye, 138
Mortara case, 77–78
Mulattoes, 9, 87, 97, 125, 126, 153, 160. See also Creoles of Color; Free People of Color
Multiculturalism, 3
Murdoch, H. Adlai, 6
Muslims, 76, 77
Musset, Alfred de, 82, 85, 116, 117.
Works: Les Nuits (Nights), 43;
“Tristesse,” 49
Myth, 178, 223n16
Nantes, France, 29, 31, 39
Napoleon I (Napoleon Bonaparte), 44, 82, 139, 194n18, 202n1, 208n3, 211n10. See also Bonapartists
Napoleonic Code, 45
Napoleon III (Louis-Napoleon), 8, 63, 70, 75, 77
Narcissism, 218n12
Narrative structure and technique, 49, 52, 60, 64, 107–9, 117, 124, 136, 139, 140;
analepsis, 50, 60, 77, 97, 141;
autotextuality, 60;
diegesis, 52, 60, 99, 107, 108;
frame narrative and embedded tales, 52–53, 54, 64, 71, 72, 99, 114, 126, 215n17;
indirect style, 117;
metafiction, 109;
paratextual elements, 99–100, 107, 108;
prolepsis, 50, 60
Natchez, Mississippi, 33
Natchez Wars, 9
Natchitoches, Louisiana, 15, 23, 58, 153, 182
Natchitoches Parish, 122
Native Americans. See Indians
Native Guards, 15, 72, 73, 196n28
Nativist movement, 35, 166
Naturalism (in literature), 50, 74, 109, 123, 130, 145
Natural religion, 30, 37, 42, 65–66
Naudin, Camille, 87, 89
Neighborhoods, 176, 186–87;
“Back of Town,” 137;
Bywater, 185;
as changing, 166;
Downtown, 185–86;
Faubourg Marigny, 12, 14, 23, 162, 178;
Faubourg Sainte-Marie (American sector), 12, 23;
Faubourg Tremé, 14, 27, 137, 174, 183, 186, 226n4;
Garden District, 154, 155, 162, 166, 167;
Kenner, 184;
Lower Garden District, 131;
Ninth Ward, 185;
Pailet-Land, 174, 183;
Seventh Ward, (p.257) 14, 172, 174, 178–79, 182, 202n2;
Sixth Ward, 14, 183;
Nerval, Gérard Labrunie de, “El Desdichado,” 87
Nesanovich, Stella, 171
New England, 61, 94, 123, 156, 157, 190n1
New Iberia, Louisiana, 136, 156
New Mexico, 58
New Orleans:
as a “black space,” 228n17;
City Council, 10;
as a “female place,” 228n18;
founding, 4;
history, 4, 7, 11–12;
name, 4;
19th century cultural milieu, 22–25;
population figures, 6, 10, 11–12, 24;
reputation and image, 20, 36, 110, 154, 197n7;
New Orleans, Battle of, 38, 57, 71, 87, 144, 162, 182, 195n25
New Orleans Poetry Forum, 170
Newspapers and magazines, English-language, America:
Atlanta Constitution, 119;
Boston Literary World, 93;
Callaloo, 174;
Century Magazine, 132;
Cincinnati Commercial, 101;
Daily City Item, 101;
De Bow’s Review, 25;
Democrat, 101;
The Dial, 123, 153;
The Double-Dealer, 72, 170, 223n9;
Harper’s (New Monthly) Magazine, 102, 132;
Harper’s Bazaar, 131;
Harper’s Weekly, 101;
Louisiana Gazette, 24;
Louisiana Literature, 170;
Louisville Courier, 156;
New Laurel Review, 170;
The Bee (L’Abeille), 24, 25;
New Orleans Review, 170;
New Princeton Review, 132;
New York Herald Tribune, 155;
New York Times, 155;
Picayune/Daily Picayune/Times-Picayune, 5, 25, 48, 93, 154;
St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 122;
Scribner’s, 93;
South, 25;
Southern Review, 170;
Times-Democrat, 94, 101, 120, 144;
Tribune, 198n15;
Vogue, 122;
Xavier Review, 170
Newspapers and magazines, foreign-language, Louisiana and France, 11, 24–25;
L’Abeille (The Bee), 24, 25, 57, 71, 94, 105, 113, 120, 144, 205n1;
Album Littéraire: Journal des Jeunes Gens, 30, 72;
L’Ami des Lois, 25;
Le Carillon, 53, 115, 117;
La Chronique, 57;
Les Cinq Centimes Illustrées, 64;
Les Comptes Rendus de l’Athénée Louisianais, 25, 49, 50, 106, 115, 120, 201n22;
Le Courrier de la Louisiane, 24, 53, 85, 144;
Le Démocrite, 63;
L’Epoque, 49;
L’Equité, 58;
Le Franco-Louisianais, 105, 117;
La Gazette (German), 24;
La Gazette de la Louisiane, 57;
Le Libertaire, 67;
Le Meschacébé, 25, 105, 107;
Le Moniteur de la Louisiane, 24;
Le Propagateur Catholique, 32, 37;
La Renaissance Louisianaise, 24, 55, 64;
La Revue des Colonies, 70;
La Tribune, 15, 24, 58, 72, 73, 74, 87, 90, 91, 208n2;
L’Union, 24, 82, 87, 90;
Le Vigilant, 55, 203n15;
La Violette, 55
New york, New york, 46, 59, 62, 75, 101, 102, 134, 146, 170, 172
Niagara Falls, 33, 48
Noble savage, 29, 37, 40, 55
NOOMO, 170
Normandy, 50, 126
North Carolina, University of, at Asheville, 185
Northerners. See Americans; Yankees
Nova Scotia, 7
Novel, defined, 37
(p.258) Occupation, Federal, 12, 15, 32, 50, 131, 136, 156, 158. See also Butler, Benjamin; Farragut, David; Federal troops
Occupation, Spanish. See Spanish in Louisiana
Octoroons, 9, 75. See also Free People of Color; Quadroons
Ogé, Vincent, 73, 164
Ohio River, 33
Oil, 213n21, 230n30
Opera house. See Theaters
Operas, 23
O’Reilly, Alejandro, 8, 63, 64, 223n14
Orestes, 113
Osbey, Brenda Marie, 7, 14, 151, 171, 174–78, 180, 182, 205n10, 226n3, 226n4, 228n13, 228n15;
background and career, 174;
religious views, 175, 228–29n19.
Works: All Saints: New and Selected Poems, 175, 177–78;
Ceremony for Minneconjoux, 7, 175–77;
Desperate Circumstance, Dangerous Woman, 175;
History and Other Poems, 174, 178;
In These Houses, 175, 177
Ossian. See Macpherson, James
Oushola, 32
Overall, John W., 25
Ovid, 71
Paranormal phenomena. See Insanity; Pathological behavior; Spiritualism
Parker, Alice, 108
Pascal, Blaise, 31, 36
“Passing” (as white), 52, 87, 95, 165, 179, 182, 229n21
Pathetic fallacy, 37, 53, 114, 145
Pathological behavior, 50, 52–55, 204n7. See also Insanity; Somnambulism
Patois. See Languages
Patriarchal criticism, 129, 133
Pauger, Adrien de, 26
Péladan, Joséphin, called Sâr, 204n7
Pénicaut, André, 220n18
Percy, Walker, 155, 166.
Works: Lancelot, 155;
The Moviegoer, 155
Père Antoine. See Sedella, Antonio de
Père-Lachaise Cemetery, 71
Périer, Etienne de, 9, 143
Perret, Hélène. See de la Houssaye, Sidonie
Perret, Jean-Baptiste, 104
Perret, J. John, 70, 105, 106, 107, 198n17
Perse, St.-John (Alexis Leger), Eloges, 113
“Petite Rose” (anonymous), 55–56
Petrarch, 215n20
Pfister, Arthur, 183–84, 185, 221n24
Philadelphia, 31, 39, 46, 171
Philippe II, duc d’Orléans, 4
Philippines, 8, 156
Pinchback, P. B. S., 42
Plaçage, 9, 72, 82, 110, 194n14
Place d’Armes. See French Quarter: Jackson Square
Place des Nègres. See Congo Square
Plantations, 12, 119, 126, 131, 135, 144, 151, 152, 221n25;
Destrehan, 14;
economy, 65, 114;
Laura, 119;
Melrose, 153;
Le Petit Versailles, 119;
River Lake, 160
Plaquemine, Louisiana, 185
Plessy v. Ferguson, 6, 15, 79
Plutarch, 71
Poetic forms. See Versification
(p.259) Pointe Coupée Parish, 29, 160, 182;
uprising, 10, 29
Poison, 63, 64, 66, 71, 75, 76, 77, 177
Poitevent, Eliza Jane (Pearl Rivers), 220n20
Pontchartrain, Lake, 4, 31, 32, 44, 55, 83, 155, 185, 193n10
Populus, Auguste, 81
Pornography, 163, 164
Porter, Katherine Anne, 152–53
Postcolonial criticism, viii, 121
Postmodernist criticism, viii
Potter, Paul, 151
Potvin, Charles, 89
Poydras de Lalande, Julien, 29;
“La Prise du morne du Baton Rouge par Monseigneur de Galvez,” 29
Pre-Romanticism and pre-Romantics, 18, 32, 35, 37
Presbytère. See French Quarter
Presentism, viii, 104, 108, 132
Prévost, Antoine-François, Manon Lescaut, 29
Prizes and awards, 174, 184;
American Book Award, 175;
Louisiana Literature Prize for Poetry, 171;
National Book Award, 162;
National Book Critics Circle Award, 161;
NEA Fellowship, 225n26;
PEN/Oakland Josephine Miles Award, 179;
Pulitzer, 159, 162, 171, 196n28;
T. S. Eliot Prize, 179
Progress, philosophy of, 51, 52, 59
Proletariat, 50, 59
Protestants and Protestantism, 8, 35, 47, 61, 89, 97, 98, 130, 132, 140, 152, 156, 157, 159. See also Huguenots
Protest writing, 68–71, 72–75, 76, 77–79, 87–92, 96, 169
Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph, 66–67
Provincial literature. See Regional literature
Puritanism, 20, 61, 100. See also Protestants and Protestantism
Putnam, Walter, 18
Pygmalion, 53
Quadroon balls, 24, 70, 95, 97, 164, 198n15
Quadroons, 9, 46, 70, 95, 97, 104, 105, 108, 109–13, 126, 132, 133, 134, 135, 137, 138, 146, 164–65, 201n17, 214n7. See also Free People of Color
Quarante Club. See Clubs and krewes
Questy, Joanni, 73, 74, 80, 81, 87;
“Monsieur Paul,” 74–75
Queyrouze, Léona, 119–20
Quincey, Thomas de, 166
Rachilde (Marguerite Eymery Vallette), 106, 123
Racial prejudice and oppression, 73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 86, 87, 94, 98, 108, 125, 128, 133, 134, 140, 143, 146–47, 178, 184, 198n14, 207n14
Racial system. See Caste system
Racine, Jean, 113, 120
Rama, Ángel, 21
Raphaël, Jean-Baptiste, 182
Raymond, Louise. See de la Houssaye, Sidonie
Reader reception theory. See Jauss, Hans-Robert
Realism, 49, 50, 111. See also Naturalism
(p.260) Reasons of state, 76–77, 207n14
Récit, defined, 117
Recognition, theme of. See Mistaken or hidden identity
Reconstruction, 9, 12, 15, 42, 96, 125, 131, 132, 141–42, 144, 156
Reed, Ishmael, 180
Regional literature, 17, 122, 146, 150
Régnier, Henri de, 25
Reinecke, George, 18, 117–18, 119, 216n23
Rennes, France, 31
Republicanism and republicans, 28, 45, 57, 203n13
Republic of West Florida, 7
Revolution, 50
Revolutionary virtues, 59, 61
Revolution of 1789, 6, 35, 45, 46, 47, 50, 57, 88, 89, 91, 98, 105
Revolution of 1830 (July Revolution), 8, 45
Revolution of 1848, 8, 45, 49, 51, 57, 64, 67
Rey, Henri, 210n14
Rice, Anne, 15, 22, 157, 163–65;
back-ground, 163;
The Feast of All Saints, 72, 109, 157, 163–65, 228n13;
religious views, 163;
sales, 164
Richard, Zachary, xi
Richard III of England, 77
Rights of Man (human rights), 51, 57, 88, 98
Rillieux, Norbert, 208n2, 225n30
Rillieux, Victor-Ernest, 201n24, 208n2
Rimbaud, Arthur, 172
Riquet, Nicol, 81
Robespierre, Maximilien, 47
Roman, Alfred, 144
Roman, André, 144
Roman, Sallie Rhett, 144–45
Roman Catholic Church and Catholics, 17, 35–36, 61, 62, 67, 97, 129, 143, 144, 151, 152, 156, 158, 162, 166, 167, 177. See also Churches; St. Louis Cathedral
Romance (genre), 60;
defined, 36–37
Romantic Gothic, 25, 66. See also Southern Gothic
Romanticism and Romantic elements, 18, 19, 26, 30, 32, 34, 37, 39, 43–44, 48, 49, 53, 55, 57, 60, 65–66, 68, 69, 71, 74, 81, 82, 86, 88, 109, 111, 114, 116, 120. See also Pre-Romanticism and pre-Romantics; Romantic Gothic
Roosevelt Hotel, 152, 153
Roquigny, Jacques de. See Rouquigny, Jacques de
Roquigny, Jean-Baptiste de, 203n15
Rosicrucians, 204n7
Roudanez, Louis Charles, 24
Rouget de Lisle, Claude Joseph, 89
Rouquette, Adrien-Emmanuel, 22, 30–39, 42, 43, 55, 61, 65, 113, 116, 200n12;
attitude toward America, 34–36;
attitude toward blacks, 31, 100;
attitude toward New Orleans, 36;
conservatism, 28, 30, 38;
life and career, 31–32;
political views, 38;
religious views, 32, 35–36;
support of Union, 31.
Works: L’Antoniade, 34, 35–36;
Critical Dialogue Between Aboo and Caboo, 38–39, 99–100;
“Mokeur Shanteur,” 32;
La Nouvelle Atala, 36–38, 55;
La Question américaine, 38;
Les Savanes, 33–34;
La Thébaïde en Amérique, 34
Rouquette, François-Dominique, 30, 32, 39, 42, 43, 48, 65, 113;
Les Meschacébénnes, 39–40
Rouquette, Térence, 30, 72
Rouquigny, Jacques de, 203n15;
“Le Soulier rouge,” 55, 203n15
Rousseau, Jean-Baptiste, 89
(p.261) Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 19, 29, 30, 48, 55
Rousseau, Joseph, 85
Rowell, Charles, 174, 175
Rudel (Jaufré), 215
Rylance, Keli E., 202n2
St.-Bartholomew massacre, 89
St. Bernard Parish, 8, 141
St.-Céran, Tullius (de), 57, 87
St. Charles Parish, 42, 135
St.-Domingue, 6, 8, 10, 22, 46, 59, 70, 85, 113, 115, 164. See also Haiti
Sainte-Beuve, Charles-Augustin, 33, 197n12
St. Germain, Sheryl, vii, 184–85
St. James Parish, 104, 119, 144
St. John the Baptist Parish, 104
St. John the Divine, 113
St. Louis, Missouri, 121, 122
St. Louis Cathedral (St. Louis King of France) (formerly Church), 24, 26, 32, 46, 84–85, 118, 145, 186
St. Malo (village), 101
St. Martin Parish, 140
St. Martinville, 105
St. Mary Parish, 102, 104
St.-Pierre, Bernardin de, 19
St.-Pierre, Michel, 81
St. Tammany Parish, 31, 32, 116, 152
Salaam, Kalamu ya (Val Ferdinand), 170, 226n4;
From a Bend in the River, 170
Sallis, James, x
Saloy, Mona Lisa, vii, 6, 172, 178–81, 182, 226n4;
background and career, 179;
name, 229n21.
Works: “The ‘N’ Word,” 180;
Red Beans and Ricely Yours, 179–81
Sand, George, 55, 105, 106, 122, 123, 133;
Lélia, 217n3
San Francisco, California, 170, 172, 179
San Malo, Juan, 177
San Martín de Porres, 177
Santa Maura, Greece, 101
Sarzant, Anastasie de. See Toucoutou
Satire, 150;
genre defined, 99
Savane (savannah), 33–34, 200n12
Saxon, Lyle, 20, 153–54, 161.
Works: “Cane River,” 153;
Children of Strangers, 72, 153–54, 161;
WPA Guide to New Orleans, 153
Sazerac Bar. See Roosevelt Hotel
“Schneitz,” 89
Schools:
Académie (Collège) Sainte-Barbe (New Orleans), 23, 70, 71, 85;
Collège de Rennes, 31;
Collège d’Orléans, 22, 25, 31, 39, 46;
Collège Royal de Nantes, 31, 39;
Collège Sainte-Barbe (Paris), 71;
Ecole Polytechnique, 72;
Jefferson College, 42;
Institut catholique des orphelins indigents (Couvent Institute), 23, 72, 73, 74;
Institut St.-Louis, 131;
Lycée (Collège) St.-Louis, 42;
Lycée Louis-le-Grand, 22, 42, 47, 71, 115;
St. Augustine High School, 183;
St. Peter Claver School, 183;
Ursuline Academy, 159. See also Universities
Scott, Sir Walter, 105
Scribe, Eugène, 76
Scribner’s (publishers), 94, 100, 105
Seattle, 179, 180
Second Empire, 216n23
Second Republic (1848–52), 194n18
Sedella, père Antonio de, 46
Séjour, Victor, 70–71, 75, 76, 80.
Works: Diégarias, 76–77;
Le Fils de la nuit, (p.262) 75–76;
Henri de Lorraine, 76;
Le Martyre du coeur, 77;
“Le Mulâtre,” 71;
Les Noces vénitiennes, 77;
Richard III, 77;
La Tireuse de cartes, 77–78
Séligny, Michel, 22, 23, 70, 73, 85, 209n6.
Works: “Le Pêcheur de la Guadeloupe,” 71;
“Souvenir de 1815,” 71
Senancour, Etienne de, 19, 69
Senate, U.S., 46. See also Congress
Sentimentality, 58, 59, 69, 106, 121, 123, 126, 140, 145, 146, 147, 151
Seven Years’ War, 7, 198–99n1
Sexuality and eroticism, 61, 65, 108, 110, 118, 127, 128–29, 133, 136, 154, 159, 176, 178, 184, 185, 218n13
Seyersted, Per, 122, 129, 217n4
Shakespeare, William, 18, 75, 77, 199n3;
Hamlet, 78
Shange, Ntozake (Paulette Williams), 175
Shapiro, Norman R., 76, 207n1
Siberia, 50
Sicilians. See Italians
Sicily. See Italy
Simpson, Lewis P., 170
Skinner, Robert, x
Slave march and rebellions, 13, 115
Slave markets and trade, 9, 51, 140, 178, 182
Slave narratives, 20
Slavery and slaves, 9, 10, 14, 31, 45, 47, 51, 54, 55–56, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64–65, 94, 96, 98, 100, 104, 106, 122, 123, 125, 133, 136, 137, 140, 158, 161, 176, 178, 182;
abolition by the French, 10, 65, 194n18;
emancipation in Louisiana, 15, 141–42;
population figure, 195n25
Slavs. See Croats
Smith, Dave, 180
Smith, Julie, x
Smith, Patricia, 169
Snobbery, 150, 152, 165. See also Creoles, white: mores
Socialism, 47, 57, 59–60
Socrates, 49, 90
Somnambulism, 50
Songs and singing, 95, 97, 101, 120, 164, 177
Soniat, Katherine, 185
Soulé, Armantine, 52
Soulé, Nelvil, 52
Soulé, Pierre, 47, 49, 52
Soulier-rouge, 203n15. See also Rouquigny, Jacques de
South Carolina, 144
Southern Gothic, 51, 93–94, 145. See also Romantic Gothic
Southern literature, 17, 150. See also Regional literature
“Souvenirs de Bonfouca.” See F. M. S.
Spain, 7, 46
Spanish in Louisiana, 4, 7–8, 9, 43, 63–64, 67
Spencer, Herbert, 102
Spiritualism and spiritualists, 58, 61, 81, 176, 204n7, 208n3, 210n14
Spitzer, Nick, 14
Spratling, William, 154
Staël, Germaine de, 55, 106, 123
Stanford, Donald E., 174
Starr, S. Frederick, 23
“Star-Spangled Banner,” 13
Stendhal (Henri Beyle), ix, 49, 109, 123;
Chroniques italiennes, 111
Stereotypes, 71, 78, 96
Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 62, 63, 64, 158;
Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 59, 60, 61, 62, 100, 125, 165
(p.263) Stuart, Ruth McEnery, 60, 125, 145–46, 152, 212n14.
Works: “Egypt,” 147;
The Story of Babette, 147–48;
“Uncle Mingo’s ’Speculatioms,” 146, 212n14
Sue, Eugène, Les Mystères de Paris, 49, 58
Suicide, practice and theme of, 38, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 66, 69, 71, 72, 75, 76, 81, 86, 87, 98, 112, 128, 129, 141, 161, 165, 176, 177, 218n12, 218n14
Sully, Thomas, and family of architects, 167
Supervielle, Jules, 39
Supreme Court of Louisiana, 144
Surrealism, 173
Swamps, 25, 32, 98, 184, 212n11
Swiss, 8
Switzerland, 52
Sylva, Manuel, 81
Taine, Hippolyte, 3, 19, 105, 117, 214n9
Tallant, Robert, 155
Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles-Maurice de, 47
Tangipahoa Parish, 38
Taylor, Helen, 136, 143, 146, 151, 219n3
Tekahkwitha, Catherine, 34
Templeton, Lucy, 156
Terror, The. See Revolution of 1789
Testu, Amable, 58
Testut, Charles, viii, 9, 43, 57–63, 64, 87, 119, 197n12, 204n7, 208n3.
Works: Calisto, 58;
Les Echos, 58, 60;
Les Fleurs d’été, 58;
Or et fange, 58;
Portraits littéraires de la Nouvelle-Orléans, 22, 58;
Saint-Denis, 58;
Le Vieux Salomon, 58–63, 71, 89, 107
Theaters, 22–23;
French Opera House, 23, 198n13;
Porte Saint-Martin, 70;
St. Charles Theater, 23;
Théâtre Français (Comédie-Française), 70, 76;
Théâtre d’Orléans, 23, 73;
Théâtre Saint-Philippe, 23. See also First Backyard Poetry Theater; Free Southern Theater
Theodicy, theme of, 63, 114
Thibodaux, Louisiana, 171, 183
Thierry, Camille, 22, 26, 70, 81, 83, 85–87, 116.
Works: “L’Amante du corsaire,” 26;
Les Vagabondes, 86–87
Thomson, James, The Seasons, 32
Thoreau, Henry David, 32, 200n10
Tignon, 194n18
Tinker, Edward Larocque, ix, 18, 86
Tintamarre, Bibliothèque and Editions, x
Tiresias, 61
Tolstoy, Lev, 123
Toole, John Kennedy, 151, 162–63, 184, 197n7
Toth, Emily, 121, 128–29
Toucoutou (Sarzant, Anastasie de), 87, 95, 209n10
Toussaint L’Ouverture, François Dominique, 82
Train, Henri, 90
Travel writers, 29. See also Le Page du Pratz, Antoine-Simon
Treaties:
of Fontainebleau, 7;
of Paris, 7;
of San Ildefonso, 7
Trembling Prairies, 67, 116
Tremé, Claude, 14
“Tremé” (HBO series), 195n26
Trethewey, Natasha, 196n28
Tristan, Flora, 123
Trotter, Jack, 219n3
Tudor, Henry, Duke of Richmond (Henry VII), 77
Tujague, François, 67, 139;
“A travers (p.264) l’océan,” 26;
“La Frénière,” 45;
Le Premier Pas: Essais littéraires, 67
Turgenev, Ivan, 224n24
Tuscany. See Italy
Twain, Mark, 25, 93, 132, 150
Ulloa, Antonio de, 8, 46
Umbra Workshop, 173
Union army. See Federal troops
Universities (Louisiana):
Dillard University, 24, 173, 174, 179;
Louisiana State University (LSU), 153, 170, 174, 179, 209n11, 213n2, 216n26;
Loyola University, 174;
Southeastern Louisiana State University, 184;
Straight College/University, 23–24, 78;
Tulane University, vii, 119, 133, 146, 151, 159, 174, 185, 196n27, 212n17, 216n24;
University of Louisiana at Lafayette (University of Southwestern Louisiana), x, 209n11;
University of New Orleans, 182;
Xavier University, 182, 196n27
Uptown. See Neighborhoods
Ursuline nuns, 4, 141, 152, 191n2
Ursulines Convent, 26, 44
Vacherie, Louisiana, 144
“Valcour B.” (B. Valcour), 80
Vaudreuil de Cavagnal, Pierre de Rigaud, Marquis de, 204n10
Verlaine, Paul, 33
Versaillais, 50
Versailles, 113
Versification and technique, 35, 56, 86, 87, 117, 120, 169, 173, 175–76, 177, 178, 183, 184, 228n15. See also Alexandrines
Viatte, Auguste, 39, 107, 116, 118, 213n1
Vice and deviancy, 82, 85, 110, 154, 155
Vicksburg, Mississippi, 63, 162
Vieux Carré. See French Quarter
Vigny, Alfred de, 30, 34, 45, 68, 82
Violence, 52, 54, 64, 65, 71, 98, 176, 177, 178, 182
Virgin forest. See Wilderness
Virginia, 93, 151, 159, 180;
University of, 119, 131, 180;
Virginia State, 185
Vitry, Louise, 13
Voix du sang, La, 38, 99, 111
Volstead Act, 156
Voltaire, 7, 49, 199n3, 208n3
Voodoo, 97, 100, 138, 164, 172, 181, 224n20. See also Hoodoo
Waggoner, May Rush Gwin, xi, 106
Walden Pond, 32
Walker, Alexander, 220n18
War, theme of, 63. See also individual names
Ward, Jerry W., Jr., 226n4
Warner, Charles Dudley, 132
War of 1812, 11, 71. See also New Orleans, Battle of
War of Secession. See Civil War
Washington, George, 47, 58, 90
Washington, University of, 179. See also Seattle
Weaver, Richard M., viii, 132
Weiss, M. Lynn, x, 90
Welty, Eudora, 160
West Florida, Republic of, 7
(p.265) West Indies, 9, 19, 21, 59, 101. See also Cuba; Guadeloupe; Haiti; Jamaica; Martinique; Saint-Domingue
White League, 12, 96, 122
White Supremacism, 46, 98, 107, 132, 144, 202n2
Whitman, Walt, 33, 150;
“Song of Myself,” 128
Wilderness, theme of, 19, 30, 31, 32, 34, 37, 38, 39–40, 42, 48, 49, 55, 65–66, 67, 143
Williams, John R., 31
Williams, Tennessee, 154–55;
A Streetcar Named Desire, 154;
Suddenly Last Summer, 155
Wilson, Clyde, 104
Wilson, Edmund, 95, 129;
Patriotic Gore, 94
Wolfe, Thomas, 100
Wollstonecraft, Mary, 123
Women’s situation, 9, 55–56, 62, 66, 68, 70, 110, 124, 127–28, 145, 146, 159, 176, 177, 218n11
Woolson, Constance Fenimore, 137, 204n8
WordBand, 226n4
Words & Music (festival), 226n3
World War I, 201n24
World War II, 152
Wright, Richard, 169
“Yacoub” (J. Mansion), 87, 88
Yankees, 11, 47, 115, 152, 156, 157, 158, 224n18
Yellow fever, 12, 25, 42, 47, 48, 97, 102, 103, 164, 193n12, 198n19
Yucca House. See Plantations: Melrose
Zola, Emile, 50, 55, 67, 102, 105, 109, 117, 120, 123, 145;
L’Assommoir, 123;
La Débâcle, 59, 214n9;
Lourdes, 123;
Nana, 116