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American Indians and the Rhetoric of Removal and Allotment$
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Jason Edward Black

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9781628461961

Published to University Press of Mississippi: May 2016

DOI: 10.14325/mississippi/9781628461961.001.0001

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Identity Duality and the Legacies of Colonizing and Decolonizing Rhetoric

Identity Duality and the Legacies of Colonizing and Decolonizing Rhetoric

(p.134) Conclusion Identity Duality and the Legacies of Colonizing and Decolonizing Rhetoric
American Indians and the Rhetoric of Removal and Allotment

Jason Edward Black

University Press of Mississippi

The conclusion considers the exchanges of governmental and American Indian discourses in the first third of the twentieth century in a colonizing context. Here, the passage of the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 and the Indian New Deal of 1934 culminated from a merging of governmental and indigenous voices, thereby exhibiting a hybridity present in the residues of their nineteenth century exchanges. Both of the outwardly emancipating acts were symbolic of the decolonizing power of Native agency over the course of the removal and allotment eras. Seemingly, integrationist American Indians would achieve the U.S. citizenship they had striven for throughout the allotment era through the Indian Citizenship Act. Likewise, separatist Natives would attain independence through the Indian New Deal, which allowed for tribal restructuring. However, the acts also pointed to the ways that the U.S. government retained its colonial control over American Indians by reifying the identity duality of U.S. nationalism. That is, the acts granted American Indian communities a controlled citizenship and a controlled sovereignty. In the end, both U.S. governmental and American Indian voices were blended into the resulting twin legislation that capped the cultural exchanges extant in nineteenth century U.S.-Native relations.

Keywords:   Identity Duality, Controlled Citizenship, Controlled Sovereignty, Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, Indian New Deal of 1934

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