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Voice of the Leopard – African Secret Societies and Cuba - University Press of Mississippi
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Voice of the Leopard: African Secret Societies and Cuba

Ivor L. Miller


This book shows how African migrants and their political fraternities played a formative role in the history of Cuba. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, no large kingdoms controlled Nigeria and Cameroon’s multilingual Cross River basin. Instead, each settlement had its own lodge of the initiation society called Ékpè, or “leopard,” which was the highest indigenous authority. Ékpè lodges ruled local communities while also managing regional and long-distance trade. Cross River Africans, enslaved and forcibly brought to colonial Cuba, reorganized their Ékpè clubs covertly in Havana an ... More

Keywords: African migrants, political fraternities, history of Cuba, Nigeria, Cameroon, Cross River basin, initiation society, Ékpè, long-distance trade, Abakuá

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2009 Print ISBN-13: 9781934110836
Published to University Press of Mississippi: March 2014 DOI:10.14325/mississippi/9781934110836.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Ivor L. Miller, author