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Voice of the LeopardAfrican Secret Societies and Cuba$
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Ivor L. Miller

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9781934110836

Published to University Press of Mississippi: March 2014

DOI: 10.14325/mississippi/9781934110836.001.0001

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. From Creole to Carabalí

. From Creole to Carabalí

(p.103) 4. From Creole to Carabalí
Voice of the Leopard

Ivor L. Miller

University Press of Mississippi

This chapter describes how creoles, or Cuban-born initiates, were assimilated into Cross River traditions through Abakuá practice. It focuses on how an Abakuá title-holder in Havana named Andrés Petit created the first lodge of white men, thereby founding an entire lineage that continues today. This process was related to general conditions in Cuba at the time, including economic crises and tensions with the colonial regime. The creative responses of Abakuá leadership made it the first integrated institution in Cuba, before the Wars of Independence began and before the rebel leaders such as Antonio Maceo and José Martí proclaimed that an independent Cuba would be an integrated one.

Keywords:   creoles, Cuba, Cross River, Abakuá, lodge, Andrés Petit

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